English to Spanish Glossary

This glossary is the result of extensive research by the Glossary Creation Team upon inquiries from working professionals in the field of interpretation and translation; it is a context based approach not intended to give an all-inclusive translation of the terms presented. The user should be mindful that this work originated in the Southern District of California, a border region with a rich Mexican influence.






4

4x4ing

AUTOMOTIVE 
Definitions & Examples:
•According to Google Maps, the region marked in red is also an area where people take lots of photos when they go 4x4ing.

Suggested Translations:
manejar/conducir/correr vehículos de doble tracción de manera recreacional || divertirse operando un 4x4 || correr vehículos todoterreno || andar en el 4x4 369

A

a.k.a./aka

PROB/PRETRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Abbreviation that stands for “also known as.” Used to denote aliases or false names.       • Oscar Perez, aka el Búho Tuerto, was detained at the border with a load of cocaine.

Suggested Translations:
alias || apodo || sobrenombre 1

abode: usual place of ~

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• Peter’s usual place of abode is in Kansas, because that is where he currently lives or dwells. Note: Compare with domicile and residence.

Suggested Translations:
domicilio habitual/fijo (de una persona) 2

acquit

TRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To set free or judicially discharge from an accusation or suspicion of guilt; to clear a person from a criminal charge.        • If you don’t find evidence beyond a reasonable doubt against her, you must acquit.

Suggested Translations:
absolver || librar/exonerar de culpa al acusado 3

acquittal

TRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The legal certification, usually by jury verdict, that an accused person is not guilty of the charged offense. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed.)

Suggested Translations:
exculpación || sentencia absolutoria || liberación de responsabilidad 4

action

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A criminal or civil judicial proceeding brought on by one party against another.       • The prosecutor has promised to file legal action against medical marihuana dispensaries.

Suggested Translations:
demanda || litigio || proceso || caso || causa 5

adamant

 
Definitions & Examples:
• My client is adamant about not coming back.

Suggested Translations:
firme || categórico       • mantenerse firme en lo dicho • insistir en lo dicho • porfiar en lo dicho 6

addendum

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Addition or supplement, especially to a document.      • The U.S. Probation Department submitted an addendum to the pre-sentence report.

Suggested Translations:
apéndice 7

adjudication

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: The legal process of resolving a dispute in a court proceeding.          • Adjudication was delayed because of the late submission of essential documents by the defense. 2) Def.: The judgment or decree given.          • The trial court’s adjudication was overturned by the court of appeals. 3) Def.: A court process that determines if juveniles committed the crimes with which they are charged. In juvenile courts an adjudication is analogous to a conviction.          • The defendant had no juvenile adjudications or criminal convictions when he appeared before the judge for his sentence.

Suggested Translations:
1) determinación judicial 2) fallo || sentencia || resolución/pronunciamiento  judicial 3) fallo judicial que determina la responsabilidad del menor de los actos imputados || fallo de responsabilidad penal contra un menor || fallo que determina que el menor es responsable de los actos imputados 8

adjusted offense level

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Once the base offense level is determined under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, the sentencing judge arrives at the adjusted offense level after considering factors such as role in the commission of the crime, acceptance of responsibility, and assistance in the prosecution of others.       • The adjusted offense level reflected a four level reduction because of the fast-track program.

Suggested Translations:
nivel ajustado del delito  9

Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO)

NAMES OF ORGANIZATIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts' budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States. (http://www.uscourts.gov/common/glossary.aspx , accessed 05-08-2013)       • The Administrative Office of the United States Courts keeps statistics regarding cases that use the services of an interpreter.

Suggested Translations:
Oficina Administrativa de los Tribunales Federales Estadounidenses 10

admissible

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Capable of being legally admitted; allowable; permissible. May be considered by a jury or judge in civil and criminal cases.       • The defendant’s post-arrest statement was deemed admissible by the Court because it was relevant, not unfairly prejudicial and reliable.

Suggested Translations:
admisible || digno de aceptarse/admitirse como prueba 11

admit

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Acknowledge to be true or to be the case. Accept one’s responsibility for an action.      • The defendant admitted several violations of the terms of his supervised release. 2) Def.: To permit into evidence.      • The judge admitted the expert testimony as evidence.

Suggested Translations:
1) aceptar || reconocer 2) aceptar || admitir 12

admonition

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: A warning, caution.      • The document contained an admonition not to commit a federal, state or local crime while under pretrial supervision. 2) Def.: A reprimand.      • Counsel was upset by the judge’s admonition for him to refrain from asking leading questions. 3) Def.: Any authoritative instruction or cautionary statement from the Court to the jury regarding their duties.      • The judge’s admonition to the jury included avoiding contact with all the parties in the case.

Suggested Translations:
1) amonestación || advertencia || apercibimiento 2) reprensión || amonestación 3) amonestación 13

adversary system (of justice)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A procedural system, such as the one used in the U.S., involving parties contesting with each other to present a case before an impartial decision maker. This differs from the inquisitorial system based on the civil law tradition of many other countries, in which the judge takes a more active role in arriving at the truth.       • Closing arguments in a jury trial are an illustration of the adversary system of justice because each party argues its own side.

Suggested Translations:
sistema (judicial) contencioso || sistema acusatorio adversarial 14

advisory guidelines

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Sentencing recommendations made by the US Sentencing Commission that must be consulted by district judges but are not binding.       • The judge imposed the low end of the advisory guideline range on the defendant.

Suggested Translations:
pautas de carácter consultivo || pautas por considerar || norma consultiva   15

affidavit

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A written or printed statement made under oath. (http://www.uscourts.gov/common/glossary.aspx , accessed 05-08-2013)       • Based on the financial affidavit, the judge decided that the defendant qualifies for appointed counsel.

Suggested Translations:
declaración juramentada/jurada por escrito || affidávit 16

affirm

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: When the court of appeals concludes that the lower court's judgment is correct and will stand as rendered.       • The court of appeals affirmed the trial court’s ruling regarding the admissibility of the defendant’s post-arrest statement. 2) Def.: To solemnly declare rather than to swear under oath.       • Do you solemnly swear or affirm to tell the truth?

Suggested Translations:
1) confirmar || ratificar 2) prometer || afirmar solemnemente || protestar 17

affirmative defense

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A defendant's assertion of facts and arguments that, if true, will defeat the plaintiff's or prosecution's claim, even if all the allegations in the complaint are true. [...] Examples of affirmative defenses [...] are insanity and self-defense. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)        • The defendant has the burden of proving the affirmative defense of duress by a preponderance of the evidence.

Suggested Translations:
defensa/excepción de fondo || defensa con argumentos de fondo y no de forma que el imputado presenta para desvirtuar los cargos hechos por la fiscalía 18

agreement

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: A mutual understanding between two or more legally competent persons.       • The agreement between the parties that the witness qualified as an expert saved time. 2) Def.: A contract.       • Every contract is an agreement, but not every agreement is a contract. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)

Suggested Translations:
1) acuerdo || convenio || pacto 2) convenio || acuerdo ||  contrato 19

aid and abet

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To intentionally facilitate or assist another individual in the commission of a crime.       • The defendant was accused of aiding and abetting in the transportation of illegal aliens.

Suggested Translations:
auxiliar || cooperar || auxiliar e instigar 20

allegation

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A statement not yet proven.       • The defendant admitted the allegation that he had failed to submit monthly reports to Probation while under supervised release.

Suggested Translations:
imputación || acusación || atribución 21

Alternatives to Prison Solution (APS) Program

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An intensive, court-supervised diversion program aimed at early intervention, rehabilitation, employment and education. This Southern District of California program requires signing a contract and entails closer monitoring than a non-APS diversion program.       • After Mrs. Lara pled guilty and complied with the terms of her APS contract, the Government moved to dismiss her case without prejudice. Note: See diversion program, deferred entry of judgment, and deferred prosecution.

Suggested Translations:
programa de solución alterna a la pena de prisión/a la pena de reclusión penitenciaria 22

ambush: trial by ~

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A defense attorney, in a trial, may claim trial by ambush when he or she has not received full pre-trial discovery and is, therefore, surprised by the late disclosure of evidence.        • I submit, Your Honor, that admitting testimony by this witness is tantamount to a trial by ambush.

Suggested Translations:
juicio por emboscada   23

amendment

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A change in a document, including additions to it or deletions from it. (Federal Judicial Center Glossary)       • The U.S. Attorney made an amendment to the complaint to add a charge of conspiracy.

Suggested Translations:
enmienda || modificación || reforma (a la legislación) 24

amnesty

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of persons, [...] officially forgiving certain classes of persons who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted. [...] Also termed general pardon. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act provided amnesty for undocumented aliens already present in the country. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)

Suggested Translations:
amnistía 25

AO (Administrative Office of the United States Courts)

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts' budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States. (http://www.uscourts.gov/common/glossary.aspx, accessed 05-08-2013)       • The AO of the United States Courts keeps statistics regarding cases that use the services of an interpreter.

Suggested Translations:
Oficina Administrativa de los Tribunales Federales Estadounidenses 26

appeal (n.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A request made by a party that a higher court review the lower court’s decision to determine if it was correct.       •The appeal from his conviction failed, and he was sent back to prison.

Suggested Translations:
(recurso de) apelación/alzada 27

appearance

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The presentation of oneself in court as a party to an action or as an attorney representing a party in an action. An appearance may also be made in writing, orally or by some act which implies the intention of appearing and submitting to the jurisdiction of the court.       • The defendant’s next appearance before the Court will be for sentencing.

Suggested Translations:
comparecencia 28

APS (Alternatives to Prison Solution) Program

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An intensive, court-supervised diversion program aimed at early intervention, rehabilitation, employment and education. This Southern District of California program requires signing a contract and entails closer monitoring than a non-APS diversion program.        • After Mrs. Lara pled guilty and complied with the terms of her APS contract, the Government moved to dismiss her case without prejudice. Note: See diversion program, deferred entry of judgment, and deferred prosecution.

Suggested Translations:
programa de solución alterna a la pena de prisión/a la pena de reclusión penitenciaria 29

arch: fingerprint ~

FINGERPRINTS 
Definitions & Examples:
• The arch pattern is made up of ridges lying one above the other in a general arching formation. (http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint_patterns.html , accessed 4-4-2011)

Suggested Translations:
arco 30

asportation

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The act of carrying away or removing (property or a person). Asportation is a necessary element of larceny. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)      • A bare removal from the place in which he found the goods, though the thief does not quite make off with them, is a sufficient asportation. (http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/11688?redirectedFrom=asportation#eid, accessed 02-03-2016)

Suggested Translations:
acarrear || mover || transportar 31

attaché ICE ~

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
• The ICE attaché in Mexico came to testify about the defendant´s alienage.

Suggested Translations:
agregado de ICE/del Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas 32

attachment

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A supplementary or additional document that is attached to a primary document.      • Counsel included three reference letters as an attachment to his sentencing memorandum.

Suggested Translations:
anexo || adjunto 33

B

bare bones

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• In the interest of time, counsel, please just give me the bare bones of your argument.

Suggested Translations:
expresión mínima || lo rudimentario || lo esencial || lo básico 34

bars: to hum a few ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Figuratively, to give a short explanation.        • Counsel, be prepared to hum a few bars for me on minor role for a guy who is high when he's crossing the border in the pedestrian lane and has drugs on him.

Suggested Translations:
explicar en pocas palabras 35

base offense level

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The level assigned to a crime under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. The starting point in calculating the level of seriousness of a particular offense.      • The highest base offense level under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines is 43.

Suggested Translations:
nivel base del delito 36

bathwater: throw out the baby with the ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: We can be so concerned with one issue that we sacrifice something else and, hence, we throw the baby out with the bathwater.           • Oh, come on, don't cancel the whole project and lose all that we have gained! You're throwing the baby out with the bathwater.

Suggested Translations:
echar/arrojar la soga tras el caldero   37

battered woman syndrome

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• Our client was suffering from Battered Woman Syndrome and, after constant abuse by her partner, became depressed and unable to take steps to flee the abuse.

Suggested Translations:
Síndrome de la mujer maltratada  38

BCC (Border Crossing Card)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The Border Crossing Card (BCC) is both a BCC and a B1/B2 visitor’s visa. A BCC (also referred to as a DSP-150) is issued as a laminated card, which has enhanced graphics and technology, similar to the size of a credit card. It is valid for travel [into the United States] until the expiration date on the front of the card, usually ten years after issuance. (http://travel.state.gov/content/visas/english/visit/border-crossing-card.html , accessed 06-10-2014).       • The subject produced a Border Crossing Card allowing him limited entry into the United States. Note: This document is often called visa láser in Spanish, and is also called a laser visa in English.

Suggested Translations:
tarjeta de cruce fronterizo || tarjeta para cruzar la frontera || visa láser 39

BIA (Board of Immigration Appeals)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) is the highest administrative body for interpreting and applying immigration laws. [...] Generally, the BIA does not conduct courtroom proceedings - it decides appeals by conducting a "paper review" of cases. On rare occasions, however, the BIA hears oral arguments of appealed cases, predominately at headquarters. (http://www.justice.gov/eoir/biainfo.htm, accessed 12-03-2014)       • The BIA upheld the order of removal issued by the immigration judge.

Suggested Translations:
Junta de Apelaciones de Inmigración 40

bifurcation: fingerprint ~

FINGERPRINTS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Point where a friction ridge forks and becomes two separate ridges.      • Bifurcations are among the most common types of ridge characteristics, or minutia, in fingerprint identification.

Suggested Translations:
bifurcación 41

Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) is the highest administrative body for interpreting and applying immigration laws. [...] Generally, the BIA does not conduct courtroom proceedings - it decides appeals by conducting a "paper review" of cases. On rare occasions, however, the BIA hears oral arguments of appealed cases, predominately at headquarters. (http://www.justice.gov/eoir/biainfo.htm, accessed 12-03-2014)       • The Board of Immigration Appeals upheld the order of removal issued by the immigration judge.

Suggested Translations:
Junta de Apelaciones de Inmigración 42

bond

BOND/DETENTION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Bail bond. 1) Def.: Personal appearance bond.      • The judge set a personal appearance bond co-signed by two financially responsible adults. 2) Def.: Cash or corporate surety bond.      • He set a cash or corporate surety bond for the defendant. 3) Def.: Bond secured by real property.      • The Government requested the Court set bail at one hundred thousand dollars secured by real property.

Suggested Translations:
bono caucional || caución/fianza 1) caución/fianza/bono caucional personal (de comparecencia)       • Fianza personal (de comparecencia) garantizada por dos adultos económicamente solventes. 2) fianza/caución en efectivo o por compañía afianzadora 3) bono caucional garantizado por bienes raíces/con prenda inmobiliaria 43

book (v.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To process an individual following arrest by recording offense and identity data, usually at a jail or police station. Fingerprints and photographs are commonly taken as part of this procedure.       • The defendant was booked into jail too late last night to make it to court this morning.

Suggested Translations:
fichar || registrar en las fichas policiacas/policiales 44

booking window

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• This defendant had a 12:30 pm booking window, so he should be here tomorrow for his arraignment, your Honor.

Suggested Translations:
periodo para el registro de ingreso || periodo para fichar/registrar (el ingreso del) al detenido 45

booking/register number

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A number assigned to an individual at a jail or police station for identification purposes following arrest.       • In the federal system, the last three digits of the booking number signify the district in which the offender was arrested and first processed.

Suggested Translations:
número de registro (de ingreso) || número de ficha policial || número de recluso 46

border crosser

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A border crosser is a holder of a B1/B2 visitor’s visa or a border crossing card (BCC), also known as a DSP-150.       • "Are you a border crosser?," asked the probation officer.

Suggested Translations:
portador de un permiso para cruce fronterizo 47

Border Crossing Card (BCC)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The Border Crossing Card (BCC) is both a BCC and a B1/B2 visitor’s visa. A BCC (also referred to as a DSP-150) is issued as a laminated card, which has enhanced graphics and technology, similar to the size of a credit card. It is valid for travel [into the United States] until the expiration date on the front of the card, usually ten years after issuance. (http://travel.state.gov/content/visas/english/visit/border-crossing-card.html, accessed 06-10-2014).      • The subject produced a Border Crossing Card allowing him limited entry into the United States. Note: This document is often called visa láser in Spanish, and is also called a laser visa in English.

Suggested Translations:
tarjeta de cruce fronterizo || tarjeta para cruzar la frontera || visa láser 48

bouncer

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The bouncer didn't let me in the nightclub when he saw my ID.

Suggested Translations:
sacaborrachos || gorila || cadenero || sacabullas || patovica || portero || el puerta 49

bracelet: electronic wrist/ankle ~

PROB/PRETRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defendant is to wear an electronic ankle bracelet.

Suggested Translations:
grillete electrónico (de tobillo/muñeca) 50

brass knuckles

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defendant was picked up by the California Highway Patrol when they found brass knuckles in his back pocket during his pat down.

Suggested Translations:
nudillos (de metal) || manopla de acero || puño americano/de acero || nudillera 51

bridle: to ~ and bristle

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• “Your client doesn’t only bridle at the thought of being supervised, he outright bristles,” said the judge. Note: See bristle.

Suggested Translations:
mostrar estar indignado/molesto        • Su cliente no solo se indigna al enterarse que será supervisado, sino que hasta se enfurece/se retuerce del coraje.  52

bristle: to bridle and ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• “Your client doesn’t only bridle at the thought of being supervised, he outright bristles,” said the judge. Note: See bridle.

Suggested Translations:
enfurecerse || retorcerse del coraje        • Su cliente no solo se indigna al enterarse que será supervisado, sino que hasta se enfurece/se retuerce del coraje. 53

bus: throw someone under the ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• My intention is not to throw my client’s co-defendant under the bus, but...

Suggested Translations:
hacer ver/quedar mal a alguien || cargarle el muertito/muerto a alguien || usar de chivo expiatorio a alguien || traicionar || echar la culpa || endilgarle algo a alguien 54

buyback: gun ~ program

WEAPONS 
Definitions & Examples:
• The city will put in place a gun buyback program that will allow gun owners to exchange guns for gift cards. 

Suggested Translations:
programa de desarme voluntario/de canje de armas 55

C

CAI (Correctional Alternatives, Inc.)

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
• The Court sentenced him to two months’ custody at a work furlough facility operated by CAI.

Suggested Translations:
compañía (de alternativas a la prisión) Correctional Alternatives, Inc. 56

career offender

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: According to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines §4B1.1, “[t]he defendant qualifies as a career offender if (1) the defendant was at least 18 years old at the time the defendant committed the instant offense of conviction; (2) the instant offense of conviction is a felony that is either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense; and (3) the defendant has at least two prior felony convictions of either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense."        • If the defendant commits this crime again he will be treated as a career offender.

Suggested Translations:
delincuente de carrera || delincuente que comete un tercer delito grave de drogas o violencia || delincuente que recibe tercera sentencia condenatoria por delito mayor que involucra violencia o narcotráfico || delincuente que puede considerarse como delincuente de carrera 57

caretaker

 
Definitions & Examples:
• I am my parents’ primary caretaker.

Suggested Translations:
proveedor de atención al anciano/paciente || persona que atiende a 58

cart: put the ~ before the horse

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Counsel, you are putting the cart before the horse by arguing an issue that is not yet before the Court.

Suggested Translations:
empezar la casa por el tejado || poner la carreta delante de los bueyes 59

cat, the ~ is out of the bag

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
1) • Once the damaging evidence is heard by the jury, the cat is out of the bag and no instruction can really make them disregard it. 2) • The cat was out of the bag when Susan told Tony the secret.

Suggested Translations:
1) no hay marcha atrás • Una vez escuchadas las pruebas perjudiciales por el jurado el daño está hecho y no hay marcha atrás,... 2) soltar la sopa || regar el tepache 60

categorically

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To affirm categorically is to absolutely, directly, expressly, positively, and flatly affirm.      • The attorney flatly denied the charges and said that reports of such activity are “absolutely, categorically false.”

Suggested Translations:
categóricamente || de manera terminante/rotunda 61

cater

 
Definitions & Examples:
• I have a catering business. I mainly cater big weddings.

Suggested Translations:
abastecer comida por encargo || encargarse del servicio de comida y bebida (para fiestas, eventos, etc.) || ofrecer servicios de banquetería 62

catering truck

 
Definitions & Examples:
• He was driving a catering truck to the construction site.

Suggested Translations:
cafetería rodante || camión de comida || lonchera (border Spanish) || servicios rodantes de comida y bebida 63

CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy)

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defendant would rather do the 500-hour drug program than participate in CBT.

Suggested Translations:
terapia cognitivo-conductual || terapia cognitiva del comportamiento Nota: No es cognoscitivo 64

CCA (cold cranking amperes)

AUTOMOTIVE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Amount of current a battery can provide at 0 degrees Fahrenheit. This measurement is commonly used to compare battery performance.            • According to the expert witness, the cold cranking amperes rating of the motorcycle battery that was used to power the load car was insufficient for that type of vehicle. Note: The word amperes is commonly shortened to amps.

Suggested Translations:
amperios de arranque en frío 65

Cellebrite

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Brand name of hardware and software used to extract, transfer and analyze data from cellular phones and mobile devices.      • The Border Patrol agent used the Cellebrite software program to extract call logs and text messages from the suspect's cell phone.

Suggested Translations:
Cellebrite || programa Cellebrite (para extracción de datos)   66

charge bargain

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A [type of] plea bargain [or negotiated agreement] whereby a prosecutor agrees to drop some of the counts or reduce the charge to a less serious offense in exchange for a plea of either guilty or no contest from the defendant. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       •The defendant received the benefit of the charge bargain when he pled guilty to the lesser charge of larceny and the prosecutor dismissed the robbery charge. Note: Of interest and for further clarification readhttp://thepleabargainingblog.blogspot.com/2015/12/professor-dervan-lectures-regarding.html, (accessed 03-22-2017) andhttp://www.shestokas.com/general-law/plea-bargaining-in-criminal-cases/, accessed 03-22-2017).

Suggested Translations:
negociación/trato/pacto/convenio sobre (la limitación/reducción de) los cargos/acusaciones      67

claim against: false ~ the United States

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defendant made a false claim against the United States Navy regarding military pay.

Suggested Translations:
solicitud fraudulenta de compensación || reclamación improcedente de pago 68

claim to: false ~ to United States citizenship

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
• Mr. Pérez made a false claim to United States citizenship at the port-of-entry.

Suggested Translations:
afirmar ser ciudadano (sin serlo) || presentar afirmación improcedente de ciudadanía || aseverar/declarar/decir falsamente ser ciudadano 69

clemency

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
• The judge chose to show clemency to the truly repentant defendant.

Suggested Translations:
clemencia 70

coercion

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The act of applying pressure to sway someone from doing something against his or her will.      • There is no room for coercion of any kind in a loving relationship. Note: Coercion and duress are commonly used as synonyms but as legal terms they have differences. See duress.

Suggested Translations:
coerción    71

cog in the wheel/machine

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A person that plays a minor but essential role in an organization, etc.      • My client is merely a cog in the wheel of this large criminal enterprise.

Suggested Translations:
pieza en el engranaje [de algo] ||un elemento || una pieza más 72

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defendant would rather do the 500-hour drug program than participate in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

Suggested Translations:
terapia cognitivo-conductual || terapia cognitiva del comportamiento Nota: No es cognoscitivo 73

cold cranking amperes (CCA)

AUTOMOTIVE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Amount of current a battery can provide at 0 degrees Fahrenheit. This measurement is commonly used to compare battery performance.      • According to the expert witness, the cold cranking amperes rating of the motorcycle battery that was used to power the load car was insufficient for that type of vehicle. Note: The word amperes is commonly shortened to amps.

Suggested Translations:
amperios de arranque en frío   74

cold-hit boarding

MARITIME 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A random boarding of a vessel, often by the Coast Guard, in order to monitor compliance with regulations.      • The cold-hit boarding of the vessel after it entered San Diego harbor led to the biggest drug seizure this year.

Suggested Translations:
abordaje de naves elegidas al azar [a menudo por la Guardia Costera] a fin de monitorear el cumplimiento de los reglamentos 75

commutation

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The executive's substitution in a particular case of a less severe punishment for a more severe one that has already been judicially imposed on the defendant. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • The governor, despite the Pardon Board's recommendation, refused to commute the defendant's death sentence to life without the possibility of parole. Note: Compare with pardon and reprieve.

Suggested Translations:
conmutación 76

compel

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) • The witness was compelled to appear but he was hostile. 2) • The plight of the children urged or compelled me to send a large donation.

Suggested Translations:
1) compeler || forzar || obligar 2) instar || incitar || impeler 77

compelling

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The teenager’s story was compelling enough to cause the teacher not to punish him.

Suggested Translations:
persuasivo || convincente || irresistible || imperioso || apremiante 78

contested hearing

CRIM. PROCEDURE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A hearing on which at least one of the parties has objections regarding one or more matters before the court. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • When an allegation of noncompliance of supervised release conditions was filed against his client, the attorney was asked whether he wanted a date for an admission or a contested hearing.

Suggested Translations:
audiencia de refutación/oposición || audiencia para refutar/oponerse a 79

contrite

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Feeling or showing regret for bad behavior. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/contrite, accessed 10-06-2016)

Suggested Translations:
arrepentido || apenado || compungido 80

cookie crumbles: that’s the way the ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Sorry, dear, you broke it and you’ve got to pay for it. That’s the way the cookie crumbles.

Suggested Translations:
así es la vida || ni modo || no hay de otra 81

corner (n.): four ~s of the document

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• Are there any agreements outside of the four corners of this document?    

Suggested Translations:
(dentro/fuera del) contenido de este documento 82

Correctional Alternatives, Inc. (CAI)

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
• The Court sentenced him to two months’ custody at a work furlough facility operated by CAI.

Suggested Translations:
compañía (de alternativas a la prisión) Correctional Alternatives, Inc. 83

cracks: fall/slip through the ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Because of the high volume of cases, the defendant’s psychological evaluation fell through the cracks, and now the hearing had to be rescheduled.

Suggested Translations:
perder de vista || olvidar || pasar por alto/desapercibido 84

Cross Border Xpress (CBX)

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An enclosed pedestrian bridge for Tijuana airport passengers crossing the US/Mexico border. (http://crossborderxpress.com , accessed 06-10-2016)       • Last time I traveled from San Diego to Mexico City by plane I paid $16 to use the newly contructed Cross Border Xpress pedestrian bridge.

Suggested Translations:
Puente CBX || Conexión Peatonal Aeroportuaria Tijuana-San Diego 85

cryptic

 
Definitions & Examples:
• That was such a cryptic account of the incident that I am still unable to understand what you say happened.

Suggested Translations:
críptico || enigmático 86

cut (for) sign

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: "Cutting" is searching for and analyzing "sign," which includes any kind of physical evidence (footprints, tire tracks, thread, clothing, etc.) created by a disturbance of the environment. (Based on:http://www.ice.gov/news/library/factsheets/shadow-wolves.htm , accessed 09-03-2014)      • Border Patrol Agent Anatolle received information from agent Bryant that he had cut foot sign for five individuals traveling through the area. Note: Also referred to as "sign cutting" and "cutting sign."

Suggested Translations:
detectar y analizar indicios || reconocer señas/rastros 87

D

default (n.)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• "My default is to always argue for a lesser sentence than the government recommends" stated the defense attorney.

Suggested Translations:
lo que se acostumbra hacer || lo que se hace automáticamente || lo que se suele hacer ||         • Mi costumbre es... 88

defer

CRIM. PROCEDURE 
Definitions & Examples:
• It is in the defendant’s best interest to have the Court defer the imposition of her sentence.

Suggested Translations:
diferir || aplazar 89

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
• The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program is meant to benefit those that may have otherwise sought relief under the DREAM Act.

Suggested Translations:
Acción Diferida [para los llegados en la infancia/para quienes llegaron al país cuando eran niños] 90

deferred entry of judgment

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Postponed recordation of a finding of guilt after a plea of guilty.       • The Southern District of California offers some low-level offenders a deferred entry of judgment program whereby a finding of guilt is made but not recorded in the expectation that the offender will comply with all of the program's requirements. Upon successful completion of the program, the Government will move to dismiss the charges. Note: Compare with deferred prosecution, which involves an agreement between the U.S. Attorney's Office and the offender that may or may not require a plea of guilty. See also Diversion Program.

Suggested Translations:
postergación/suspensión del asentamiento (en actas) de una resolución judicial || asentamiento diferido/aplazado (del fallo) 91

deferred prosecution

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A decision by the Government to delay the prosecution of a case so that the offender can fulfill certain conditions and not suffer a conviction.       • Mr. Hernandez was offered deferred prosecution in his case because he did not have a criminal record and the amount of marijuana that he crossed was very small. Note: Compare with deferred entry of judgment, in which an offender must plead guilty in order to participate in the program.

Suggested Translations:
procesamiento diferido/aplazado || ejercicio diferido/aplazado de la acción penal 92

defraud

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: To misrepresent, cheat or trick.      • The three men conspired to defraud the US by filing false tax returns. 2) Def.: Cause injury or loss by deceit or fraud.      • He tried to defraud the company of three million dollars.

Suggested Translations:
1) estafar || timar || defraudar || engañar 2) cometer fraude || causar pérdida o daño mediante dolo, engaño o mala fe 93

deportation

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The formal removal of an alien from the United States when the alien has been found removable for violating the immigration laws. Deportation is ordered by an immigration judge without any punishment being imposed or contemplated. Prior to April 1997 deportation and exclusion were separate removal procedures. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 consolidated these procedures. After April 1, 1997, aliens in and admitted to the United States may be subject to removal based on deportability. Now called removal, this function is managed by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.(http://www.uscis.gov/tools/glossary/deportation, accessed 05-27-2015)       • The defendant was a legal permanent resident for many years but a felony drug conviction led to his deportation.

Suggested Translations:
deportación 94

deputize

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To appoint someone as a substitute, a representative or assistant with power to act.       • The sheriff was deputized to ask INS-related questions to those he arrested.

Suggested Translations:
comisionar || autorizar || delegar (facultades para hacer algo) || facultar || nombrar a alguien como sustituto o representante 95

detect

 
Definitions & Examples:
• He detected an odor of narcotics or humans.

Suggested Translations:
detectar 96

deter

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To prevent, inhibit or discourage.       • The US Sentencing Commission and the Department of Justice have concluded that mandatory sentencing fails to deter crime.

Suggested Translations:
frenar (algo) || disuadir (a alguien de hacer algo) 97

deterrence

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
• Some statutory sentencing goals within the Sentencing Guidelines are to provide punishment levels that reflect the seriousness of the offense, afford adequate deterrence of criminal conduct, and protect the public from further crimes by the defendant.

Suggested Translations:
disuasión || freno || elementos de disuasión 98

deterrent

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: A means of preventing or discouraging something in general.       • This sentence is expected to serve as a deterrent to others in the community. 2) Def.: A means of preventing further misconduct by an individual being sentenced.       • The 36-month sentence is expected to serve as a deterrent to the defendant.

Suggested Translations:
1) factor disuasivo || medida preventiva || prevención (p. ej.: de la reincidencia)       • Se espera que esta pena sirva para prevenir la reincidencia. 2) para disuadir (a alguien) || como escarmiento || como freno       • Se espera que la pena de 36 meses le sirva de/como escarmiento al acusado. 99

Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
• Although the DREAM Act has not yet become law, many alien minors may be considered for temporary relief under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals initiative.

Suggested Translations:
proyecto de ley DREAM (en pos del fomento para el progreso, alivio y educación para menores extranjeros) 100

dig oneself into a hole

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To get oneself into a difficult situation. (http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/dig-yourself-into-a-hole, accessed 01-31-2017)       • It is true that Martin was desperate for cash, but by agreeing to smuggle drugs into the country in exchange for money, he just dug himself into a hole. Note: Conversely, the variant dig oneself out of a hole is used to express the opposite meaning. See dig oneself out of a hole.

Suggested Translations:
meterse en una bronca/lío/apuro || meterse en callejón sin salida || meterse en camisa de once varas 101

dig oneself out of a hole

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To get oneself out of a difficult situation.       • I've dug myself out of the hole each time I've had a brush with the law, thanks to my legal background. Note: Conversely, the variant dig oneself into a hole is used to express the opposite meaning. See dig oneself into a hole.

Suggested Translations:
zafarse de/evitarse un problema 102

diligent

 
Definitions & Examples:
• You have been diligent. Note: Assiduous and its cognate asiduo do not mean the same as to diligence, although they do as to perseverante (in time). On the one hand, assiduous is synonymous with attentive, devoted, or unremitting, persistent (as to labor); on the other, asiduo is synonymous with frecuente, puntual, or perseverante.

Suggested Translations:
asiduo || diligente || persistente || entregado || dispuesto || preparado || hacer algo con esmero || concienzudo 103

dingbat

SLANG 
Definitions & Examples:
• My sister is a sweetheart but she’s a dingbat.

Suggested Translations:
(tener/ser una) cabeza de chorlito || chiflado || pendejo || tonto || lelo || faltarle (a alguien) un tornillo 104

disabling fire

MARITIME 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The use of weapons to disable a vessel without risk to its occupants. This fire is often aimed at the steering or propulsion system of the vessel.      • The Coast Guard commander ordered the use of disabling fire after three warning shots were discharged.

Suggested Translations:
disparos para inutilizar/incapacitar/inhabilitar 105

discovery

CRIM. PROCEDURE 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Disclosure by a party to an action, at the other party’s instance, of facts or documents relevant to the lawsuit. (Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd ed. 2011)       • Rule 16 defines what information is subject to disclosure in the discovery process. 2) Def.: The facts or documents disclosed.       • The defendant asked his counsel for the discovery in his case.

Suggested Translations:
1) exhibición/revelación (obligatoria) de pruebas pertinentes [en poder de una parte a solicitud de la otra] || descubrimiento probatorio (Art. 377 del Código Nacional de Procedimientos Penales de México) 2) pruebas pertinentes/sujetas a revelarse [en poder de una parte a solicitud de la otra] 106

discovery motion

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defense filed a discovery motion to toll the Speedy Trial Act.

Suggested Translations:
petición/pedimento/solicitud/promoción (México) para que se exhiban/revelen/descubran (Colombia) pruebas [en poder de la contraparte] 107

dismiss

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To [...] terminate (an action or claim) without further hearing especially before the trial of the issues involved. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)      • 1) A federal court dismissed the request for an injunction based on an alleged breach of contract.      • 2) The Government moves to dismiss count one of the indictment against the defendant.      • 3) After the defense made a Rule 29 motion, the judge dismissed the case.      • 4) The Supreme Court dismissed the case against the plaintiff; therefore, the decision of the Court of Appeals stands.      • 5) Because the deportation hearing tapes could not be found, the U.S. Attorney's office dismissed the case.

Suggested Translations:
1) (a request) desestimar [Loos, Ossorio], declarar sin lugar [Loos] 2) (charge) retirar [Tomassi, Alcaraz] || desistir de la acción penal respecto de una imputación [Becerra] 3) (case, by judge) sobreseer [Loos, Becerra, West] 4) (case on appeal) desestimar [West] 5) (case, by plaintiff) desistirse [de la acción] [Becerra]  Note: According to West, the term desechar ("find inadmissible," "refuse to accept," "reject," "disallow," "not admit") means refusing to entertain a complaint at all because it was not filed properly, whereas desestimar is dismissing a complaint on the merits. 108

dispositive

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A deciding factor; a fact or factor bringing about a final determination      • Nothing dispositive is going to happen today.

Suggested Translations:
determinante || concluyente || dispositivo || decisivo || determinante para la resolución || resolutivo || resolutorio 109

dispositive facts

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Facts that clearly settle an issue.      • That the defendant ran the red light and that he hit the victim's car are dispositive facts because they settle the question of the defendant's guilt.

Suggested Translations:
hechos con valor determinante || hechos esenciales/cruciales/claves || hechos que resuelven (el caso) || pruebas concluyentes 110

dispositive motion

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A motion for a trial-court order to decide a claim or case in favor of the movant without further proceedings. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)      • Examples of dispositive motions include motions to dismiss, motions for summary judgment, motions for default judgment, and motions sua sponte.      • Many dispositive motions involve a motion to dismiss due to a lack of jurisdiction or improper venue.

Suggested Translations:
petición concluyente/determinante/resolutoria || petición que promueve la resolución || pedimento de orden judicial resolutoria     111

disruptive: to be ~

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Causing problems. 2) Def.: Upsetting. 3) Def.: Interfering.      • The defendant was disruptive during the proceeding.

Suggested Translations:
1) causar desorden/trastorno 2) perturbar/alterar 3) interrumpir/obstruir 112

district: U.S. ~ court judge

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A judge appointed for life by the U.S. Senate to serve in a federal judicial district.      • You have the right to enter your plea before the district court judge assigned to your case. Note: Compare with magistrate judge.

Suggested Translations:
juez de tribunal federal de primera instancia || juez (federal) de distrito 113

diversion program: (pretrial) ~~

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A program that refers certain criminal defendants, before trial, to community programs on job training, education, and the like, which if successfully completed may lead to the dismissal of the charges. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)         • In the Southern District of California, offenders charged with certain alien smuggling or drug cases may qualify for the Pretrial Diversion Program. Note: Our district offers two types of pretrial diversion programs: the APS (Alternatives to Prison Solution) Diversion Program, which is used in cases that require more support or monitoring by U.S. Pretrial Services, and the Diversion Program (also referred to as non-APS), which involves less monitoring and fewer court appearances. See also Alternative to Prisons Solution (APS). Compare with deferred prosecution and deferred entry of judgment.

Suggested Translations:
programa de suspensión condicional del proceso (con fines de regeneración) || programa de suspensión procesal || programa alterno/alternativo (al proceso)   114

dodge a bullet

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Barely avoid a bad event.       • ​You dodged the bullet this time, but you may not be so lucky next time you get caught.

Suggested Translations:
​librarla/salvarla (por un pelo) || por poco y no me salvo || de la que me salvé/libré 115

dog handler

DRUGS 
Definitions & Examples:
• They immediately called the dog handler to secondary (inspection).

Suggested Translations:
guía de canes/de perros policiales/policía || manejador 116

domestic interstate highways

 
Definitions & Examples:
• ICE works with state and local entities to intercept bulk cash being transported along domestic interstate highways.

Suggested Translations:
red nacional de vías/carreteras interestatales 117

domicile

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A place or locality where someone lives with the intent to make it a fixed and permanent home.       • Make sure you serve him with the divorce papers at his true domicile. Note: Compare with residence and abode: usual place of ~.

Suggested Translations:
domicilio 118

don't hold anything back

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• The judge told the defendant not to hold anything back when answering the probation officer's questions during the presentence interview.

Suggested Translations:
no se limite (al contestar) || no dude en decirlo todo   119

double-blind (study)

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
• The dog handler was asked, "Did you and the detector dog perform double-blind studies or tests where neither you nor the dog knew where the contraband was?"

Suggested Translations:
doble ciego || doble-ciego || a ciegas doble || doblemente a ciegas || doble enmascaramiento || enmascaramiento doble (ciego) 120

downturn

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A decline in economic, business, or other activity. (https://premium.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/bond, accessed  04-06-2018) • There was a downturn in downtown business when people started moving to the suburbs.

Suggested Translations:
bajón || caída || desaceleración || contracción || acción de empeorar 121

DREAM Act (Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
• Although the DREAM Act has not yet become law, many alien minors may be considered for temporary relief under Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.

Suggested Translations:
proyecto de ley DREAM (en pos del fomento para el progreso, alivio y educación para menores extranjeros) 122

DREAMer

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
• DREAMers are young immigrants that would qualify for the DREAM Act if it were law.

Suggested Translations:
posible beneficiario del proyecto de ley DREAM || jóvenes “soñadores” || jóvenes DREAMers 123

drive (something) home

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• We want to drive home that he does not have a right to cross into the U.S.

Suggested Translations:
recalcar || hacer hincapié || hacer entender 124

drive (v.)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• What is driving this sentence in this case is his prior aggravated assault conviction.

Suggested Translations:
impulsar || determinar || motivar || guiar || responder a || ser resultado de 125

drive-thru

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Let’s buy the food by going through the drive-thru.

Suggested Translations:
ventanilla de auto servicio || servicarro (de restaurante) || ventanilla (de servicio de comida) a carros 126

drone

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
• The U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency is using Predator drones to monitor and protect the border as part of its war on drugs.

Suggested Translations:
avión teledirigido || vehículo aéreo no tripulado || aviones piloteados/pilotados remotamente 127

drop dead date

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The date by which one must have completed something because any later efforts are useless and ineffective; esp., the date by which performance is required as a condition. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • The 300-day rule is known as the "drop-dead" date in the shipyard contracts, being the moment an order can be abandoned without legal claim. (http://www.oed.com, accessed 06-22-2016)

Suggested Translations:
fecha límite definitiva || fecha límite sin excepción || fecha de vencimiento 128

drug-related premises

DRUGS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A building or the land that it is on in which drugs are manufactured, distributed, stored or used.       • The owner of the drug-related premises was prosecuted as part of the drug conspiracy.

Suggested Translations:
lugar ligado a drogas || sitio con nexo a drogas || 129

dry run

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• Pulling apart the truck's undercarriage, the agents found a non-factory compartment — but no drugs inside. "This vehicle has been used to smuggle dope into the country, but this trip was only a dry run," said the inspector."

Suggested Translations:
simulacro || ensayo || ejercicio de simulación || un cruce de práctica 130

due diligence (investigation)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A legal term to describe when one has exercised an appropriate level of caution or investigation prior to acting or making a decision.(http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/60655/what-is-the-proper-usage-of-the-phrase-due-diligence, accessed 07-01-2015).       • The report reflects that he exercised due diligence in his review of the A-file.

Suggested Translations:
investigación con la debida diligencia || investigación previa y suficiente para actuar con precaución en la toma de decisiones (Diccionario de terminología jurídica norteamericana (inglés-español), Javier F. Becerra, 2008) 131

duplicitous

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Said of a pleading (especially an indictment) alleging two or more matters in one plea; characterized by double pleading. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • In U.S. v. Adesida, the court held that "a duplicitous indictment is one that charges separate offenses in a single count. The overall vice of duplicity is that the jury cannot in a general verdict render its finding on each offense, making it difficult to determine whether a conviction rests on only one of the offenses or on both. Adverse effects on a defendant may include . . . the danger that a conviction will result from a less than unanimous verdict as to each separate offense." (http://openjurist.org/129/f3d/846/united-states-v-adesida, accessed 4-16-2014) 2) Def.: (Said of a person) deceitful; double-dealing. Note: See duplicity.

Suggested Translations:
1) duplicativo 2) falso || (que obra) con dobleces || engañoso 132

duplicity

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Said of a pleading (especially an indictment) alleging two or more matters in one plea; characterized by double pleading. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • In U.S. v. Adesida, the court held that "a duplicitous indictment is one that charges separate offenses in a single count. The overall vice of duplicity is that the jury cannot in a general verdict render its finding on each offense, making it difficult to determine whether a conviction rests on only one of the offenses or on both. Adverse effects on a defendant may include . . . the danger that a conviction will result from a less than unanimous verdict as to each separate offense." (http://openjurist.org/129/f3d/846/united-states-v-adesida, accessed 4-16-2014) Note: See duplicitous.

Suggested Translations:
duplicidad en el cargo/en el documento acusatorio || duplicidad dentro del cargo || duplicidad (de actos delictuosos) en el mismo cargo || acumulación (indebida) de actos (ilícitos) en el mismo cargo 133

duress

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A threat of harm made to compel a person to do something against his or her will or judgment. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • A marriage that is induced by duress is generally voidable. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009) 2) Def.: The use or threatened use of unlawful force — usu. that a reasonable person cannot resist — to compel someone to commit an unlawful act. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • Duress is a recognized defense to a crime, contractual breach, or tort. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009) Note: Coercion and duress are commonly used as synonyms, but as legal terms they have differences. See coercion.

Suggested Translations:
1) presión || coacción 2) coacción   134

dust (v.)

FINGERPRINTS 
Definitions & Examples:
• To dust for fingerprints

Suggested Translations:
empolvar 135

E

egregious (behavior)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Leaving illegal aliens locked in a compartment constitutes egregious behavior.

Suggested Translations:
(conducta) atroz/despreciable || atrocidad 136

elaborate (v.)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Would you please elaborate further, counsel?

Suggested Translations:
dar más detalles || ampliar sobre el tema || explicar con lujo de detalles 137

embolism

MEDICAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• An embolism is the obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot blocking the vessel.

Suggested Translations:
embolia || obstrucción de un vaso sanguíneo. 138

en banc

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: With all judges present and participating.       • Due to the significance of the issue at stake, the prosecution requested an en banc rehearing after receiving the adverse ruling from the three-judge panel for the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Suggested Translations:
en pleno || (decisión) del pleno || (audiencia) ante el pleno     139

ensue

 
Definitions & Examples:
• A fight ensued after the police left the premises.

Suggested Translations:
surgir || resultar || comenzar || sobrevenir || darse 140

epiphany

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Seeing the effect that meth had on his brother, he experienced an epiphany that made him realize the seriousness of his own drug use.

Suggested Translations:
revelación 141

equities

BOND/DETENTION 
Definitions & Examples:
• We need to consider all of the equities he brings to the table. • Your Honor, we ask you to impose a sentence bearing in mind the equities in favor of the defendant such as his long work history and his life of poverty.

Suggested Translations:
aspectos positivos || bondades || puntos favorables/a favor (que ameritan equidad/justicia) 142

equity

BOND/DETENTION 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: The value of a property, or of an interest in a property, in excess of liens or claims against it.       • How much equity does the surety have in his home? 2) Def.: Something that is fair and just.       • Solomon’s sense of equity is well known.

Suggested Translations:
1) valor líquido || plusvalía || valor descontando gravámenes || valor neto 2) equidad || justicia 143

errand boy

 
Definitions & Examples:
• He’s the office gofer or errand boy.

Suggested Translations:
mandadero || trabajador “V” || ejecutivo “V” || el de los mandados 144

escalate

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To increase in intensity, extent, or amount. (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th ed. 2011)       • The sentences you have received for drug offenses have escalated from probation in 2009, to 8 months in 2011, to 3 years in 2012.

Suggested Translations:
aumentar || agravar || intensificar || empeorar 145

escalation

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Increase in the intensity, extent, or amount of something.       • A progressive escalation of sentences is considered by most judges to be a necessary deterrent for past offenders.

Suggested Translations:
aumento || agravamiento || intensificación || empeoramiento 146

exclude time

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def: Not include a certain period of time in the calculation of a statutory deadline.       • The parties agreed to a continuance and to exclude time from the speedy trial clock because they needed more time to resolve the case.  

Suggested Translations:
descontar cierto tiempo (del plazo dispuesto por la Ley de Juicio sin Demora) || descontar del plazo legal el tiempo intermedio || excluir del cálculo del plazo de días dispuesto por ley || permitir una demora en un proceso 147

exclusion

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The formal term for denial of an alien’s entry into the United States. (http://www.uscis.gov/tools/glossary/exclusion, accessed 05-27-2015)       • The defendant's immigration history includes one exclusion after he was determined to be inadmissible at the port of entry.

Suggested Translations:
exclusión || no admisión 148

exile

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
• He will forever live in exile from this, his second country.

Suggested Translations:
destierro || exilio 149

expedited removal

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A process in which individuals who have entered or attempted to enter the U.S. without authorization are deported without formal proceedings before an immigration judge.       • Any undocumented immigrant encountered within 100 miles of the U.S. border [...] may be placed into expedited removal proceedings. (http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/when-expedited-removal-allows-deportation-without-hearing.html, accessed 03-15-2016)

Suggested Translations:
expulsión sin demora 150

expert witness

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A person who, because of education or experience is permitted to state opinions and the reasons for those opinions. (United States Courts for the Ninth Circuit Manual of Model Criminal Jury Instructions)       • Juries are instructed to judge the testimony of an expert witness like the testimony of any other witness, and give it as much weight as they believe it deserves.

Suggested Translations:
testigo pericial 151

F

face: on its ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Immediately obvious, at first sight, with no need to analyze the situation.      • The Probation Officer found evidence that, on its face, was sufficient to revoke the offender’s supervised release.

Suggested Translations:
a primera vista || a juzgar por las apariencias || aparentemente 152

facilitate

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Help, enable, make easier, aid.      • Technological advances facilitate communication between students of different countries. 2) Def.: To make the commission of a crime easier. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)      • The defendant is charged with facilitating the entry of illegal aliens.

Suggested Translations:
facilitar 153

facts: bare ~

 
Definitions & Examples:
• I was only given the bare facts to consider.

Suggested Translations:
hechos concretos || hechos puros y duros || simplemente los hechos 154

failure

MEDICAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Insufficiency, a breaking down.             • The workshop focused on heart, kidney and respiratory failure cases. Note: Heart failure is not the same as heart arrest or heart attack. See heart arrest and heart attack.

Suggested Translations:
insuficiencia                • El taller se centró en casos de insuficiencia cardíaca, renal y respiratoria. 155

failure to appear (FTA)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Not showing up for a court date.       • Among his priors there were three failures to appear.

Suggested Translations:
falta de comparecer || incomparecencia 156

falling-out

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• “Did you and your wife have a falling out?” asked the Probation Officer.

Suggested Translations:
problema || conflicto || riña || desacuerdo || desavenencia || discordia 157

fast food (n.)

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Junk food sold at fast-food restaurants is being blamed for today’s obesity levels. Note: When used as an adjective it is hyphenated.

Suggested Translations:
comida de servicio rápido || comida chatarra 158

fast-track case

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A case in a fast-track program.       • “Your Honor, this is a fast-track case that fell off the tracks, but it’s now back on track,” explained the attorney when requesting that his case be continued. Note: See fall off the tracks and get back on track under track.

Suggested Translations:
caso (como un tren encarrilado) por la vía (de resolución) rápida || causa (encarrilada) en vías de (una) resolución rápida || un caso de resolución exprés/expresa/rápida || caso de tramitación agilizada/de proceso abreviado/en agilización procesal       • Este caso es como un tren que se descarriló de la vía de resolución rápida y se volvió a encarrilar. 159

fast-track program

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An early disposition program, authorized by the sentencing guidelines, in which the United States Attorney recommends a sentencing reduction for defendants willing to resolve their cases expeditiously.       • Section 5K3.1 allows downward departures of up to 4 levels from the sentencing guideline range, pursuant to an early/expedited-disposition program, also known as fast-track disposition program.

Suggested Translations:
programa de procesamiento rápido/de agilización procesal/de resolución rápida/de tramitación agilizada || programa de proceso abreviado/ de agilización procesal || programa de resolución exprés/expresa/rápida 160

fatal error

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A mistake causing irreversible damage; that provides grounds for legal invalidity. Fateful.       • It is fatal error not to give written notice of the intent to appeal a sentence within the prescribed period of time. Note: See reversible error.

Suggested Translations:
error irreversible 161

fellow

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) • He was one of three fellows researching the genetic makeup of murderers. 2) • He is a reputed fellow of the School of Medicine, and has been so for 20 years.

Suggested Translations:
1) becario/investigador posdoctoral || becario de investigación 2) miembro del cuerpo docente/de la junta rectora de una universidad 162

fellowship

 
Definitions & Examples:
• He did a fellowship in forensic psychiatry.

Suggested Translations:
estudios como becario posdoctoral ||  (participación en una) investigación/programa posdoctoral con beca || estudios de posgrado con beca || estudios de especialización (en medicina) 163

file (v.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To submit a document as an official public record.       • All confidential documents will be filed under seal in this case.

Suggested Translations:
presentar 164

file (v.) (a motion)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Submit a petition with the Clerk of the Court for it to be placed into the official record for the judge's consideration.       •Counsel, motions need to be filed no later than August 3rd.

Suggested Translations:
interponer/elevar/cursar/entablar/presentar (una petición/pedimento/recurso) 165

fishing expedition

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Counsel, that is beyond the scope: this hearing is not a fishing expedition.

Suggested Translations:
meter/tirar hebra/hilo/cordón/pita para sacar listón || tantear el terreno || tirar un anzuelo || picar para ver qué saca || dar cuerda para ver qué saca                • No estamos aquí para ver qué saca. 166

fit (v.): ~ the bill

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Your draft of the jury instructions will fit the bill.

Suggested Translations:
reunir los requisitos || dar la medida/la talla/el ancho || estar a la medida || encuadrar || encajar 167

five-point restraints

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Restraints that include leg shackles and handcuffs linked to a belly band by a chain approximately 15 inches long.       • Some judges allow five-point restraints in hearings that involve multiple defendants. Note: Also known as full restraints.

Suggested Translations:
engrilletados y esposados a la cintura || con  grilletes y esposas sujetas a la cintura || cinco puntos de sujeción 168

flash (v.): ~ the lights

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• As the patrol vehicle approached the suspected load car it flashed its lights twice.

Suggested Translations:
echarle las luces (a alguien) || prender y apagar las luces 169

flatbed (truck)

AUTOMOTIVE 
Definitions & Examples:
• I can’t believe it! I recently bought my first flatbed truck and already people keep asking me to help them move things.

Suggested Translations:
camión (con semirremolque) de plataforma 170

flesh out

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To elaborate, to make more complete.       • Let me flesh out for you, the jury, what I think the evidence will show.

Suggested Translations:
explicar || dar más detalles || definir || precisar 171

flimsy

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The bed of the truck was flimsy when the officer walked on it.

Suggested Translations:
endeble || frágil 172

flip-flop case

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: "[T]ype of prosecution [...] where a defendant is charged with a felony and misdemeanor. If the defendant rejects the plea offer, he is prosecuted for the felony. If the defendant pleads guilty to the misdemeanor, the felony is dismissed, and the magistrate judge sentences the defendant without a presentence report." (http://www.uscourts.gov/uscourts/FederalCourts/PPS/Fedprob/2012-09/05_pretrial.html, accessed 01-08-2014)      • In the flip-flop case, the defendant pled guilty to a misdemeanor illegal entry charge, and the prosecutor dismissed the felony illegal reentry charge. Note: Also known in the District of Arizona as mixed complaints.

Suggested Translations:
denuncia/imputación/acusación compuesta (por un delito mayor y un delito menor, con la opción de que se retire/deseche el delito mayor si el acusado se reconoce culpable del delito menor) || denuncia mixta || combinación de cargos 173

floppy-eared

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Having ears that hang heavily.       • The drug detector dog was not a floppy-eared dog.

Suggested Translations:
de orejas colgantes/pendulosas/caídas/pendientes 174

flush out

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: To drive out (e.g., of a hiding place).      • The dogs flushed out the thief from under the brush and drove him out into the open. 2) Def.: To reveal something that is concealed.; to cause something to become obvious.      • The prosecutor was intent on flushing out the truth about what led to the real estate meltdown. 3) Def.: To purge or cleanse.      • That diet helps flush out toxins.

Suggested Translations:
1) hacer salir || sacar 2) revelar         • revelar la verdad 3) limpiar || purgar || revelar 175

food stamps

 
Definitions & Examples:
• As a result of your conviction, you will become ineligible to receive certain benefits like food stamps.

Suggested Translations:
vales alimenticios/de despensa || cupones/estampillas de comida/alimentos 176

fool (v.): ~ me once, shame on you; ~ me twice, shame on me.

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• I’ll give you a break on your sentence, but remember: “Fool me once, shame on you; fool me twice, shame on me.”

Suggested Translations:
no me ves la cara dos veces || si me ves la cara una vez, la culpa es tuya; si me la ves otra vez, es mía || la mula no es arisca, sino (que) la hicieron || no me la haces dos veces 177

foreclosure

BOND/DETENTION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A judicial proceeding meant to take back real property because of non-payment of a loan.       • The HUD (Housing and Urban Development) counselor explained to us that you don’t need to pay fees for foreclosure prevention help. The money can be used to pay the mortgage instead.       • When a property owner is no longer able to make their mortgage payment and defaults on the loan, the property goes through a process known as foreclosure. The lender initiates the sale of the property by auction through a third party called a trustee. (http://www.miloanderson.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Buying-Foreclosed.pdf , accessed 4-5-2011)       • To foreclose under [the] procedure [known as judicial foreclosure], the lender has to file a lawsuit so as to obtain a court order to foreclose.       • [A] non-judicial foreclosure is also called foreclosure by power of sale. It is based on a deed of trust, which typically contains a “power of sale clause.• In the event of a default by the borrower, this clause pre-authorizes the lender to sell off the property to pay off the home loan balance. It enables the trustee (your lender or lender’s representative) to initiate the foreclosure process and sell the repo[ssessed] home without having to get a court’s approval. (http://www.helium.com/items/610918-what-is-the-difference-between-judicial-and-non-judicial-foreclosure , accessed 4-5-2011) Note: Information found in Spanish about this concept reads as follows: Proceso de ejecución de hipoteca por el impago de la deuda que la hipoteca garantiza, el cual culmina con la venta del bien hipotecado, ordinariamente en venta judicial. Es, pues, un tipo de recuperación judicial (repossession), pero hipotecaria.

Suggested Translations:
embargo/juicio hipotecario || pérdida hipotecaria || ejecución de hipoteca (o parte de un banco) || privación (que sufre el deudor hipotecario) del bien hipotecado   178

foul: no harm, no ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• "No harm, no foul," said the judge as he denied the suppression motion because the complaining party had not suffered any prejudice by the untimely delivery of discovery.

Suggested Translations:
no pasó a mayores || si no ocasiona daño, no hay problema/sanción ||no hubo daños, no hay repercusiones || no hay pena si no hay delito || no hay pena sin injuria/daño || sin daño ni perjuicio no hay falta || aquí no ha pasado nada 179

freebie: get a ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Last time you appeared before me you got a freebie: I did not revoke your supervised release. This time, because you did not comply, you will not get off so easily.

Suggested Translations:
darle la viada a alguien || darle un regalo a alguien || pasársela a alguien || correr con suerte 180

front (company)

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A business used to hide the identity or true character or activity of an illegal enterprise.       • The FBI investigation revealed that the dry cleaning business on Main St. was a front for laundering money for the Sinaloa cartel.

Suggested Translations:
pantalla || frente || fachada || tapadera 181

front and center: to place sth. ~ ~ ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• She has placed front and center of the jury that this defendant can’t even understand simple orders.

Suggested Translations:
poner en primera plana/en primer plano || enfatizar || destacar 182

front-load

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The negotiating Assistant US Attorney already front-loaded all those equities in the offer, Your honor.

Suggested Translations:
incluir de antemano || considerar anticipadamente 183

FTA (failure to appear)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Not showing up for a court date.       • Among his priors there were three FTA’s.

Suggested Translations:
falta de comparecer || incomparecencia 184

full siblings

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Are they your full siblings?

Suggested Translations:
hermanos de madre y padre 185

furrow: fingerprint ~

FINGERPRINTS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Recessed area between friction or papillary ridges.       • Because of the defendant’s very fine ridge detail, he was asked to hold ice in his hands before his fingerprints were taken so that the ridges and furrows would not be completely covered in the ink.

Suggested Translations:
surco 186

furtherance: in ~ of

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The act or process of facilitating the progress of something or of making it more likely to occur; promotion or advancement. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • In knowing and reckless disregard of the fact that certain aliens had arrived in and stayed in the United States illegally, the defendant transported or helped to transport them to their destination therein in furtherance of such violations of law.

Suggested Translations:
a fin de promover/facilitar/ayudar/procurar 187

G

goiter

MEDICAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Chronic enlargement of the thyroid.       • Iodine is so scarce in my country that most people have goiter.

Suggested Translations:
bocio 188

good cause

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Legally sufficient reason to take a certain action.       • We’ll have a hearing to determine if there is good cause to revoke your supervised release.

Suggested Translations:
motivos justificados 189

grand jury

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A group of citizens chosen to review evidence and issue indictments in felony cases.       • If a grand jury decides that there is sufficient evidence, it will issue a true bill of indictment.

Suggested Translations:
jurado indagatorio/investigador (y acusatorio) || jurado de acusación || gran jurado indagatorio 190

graveyard shift

 
Definitions & Examples:
• He worked the graveyard shift from midnight to 7:00 a.m.

Suggested Translations:
turno nocturno/de media noche 191

grope

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The prosecutor was describing how Mr. Smith had allegedly groped his stepdaughter.

Suggested Translations:
manosear || toquetear 192

gun: to be (put) under the ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• I apologize for any spelling mistakes in the final draft, but I was under the gun to turn it in within the allotted time.

Suggested Translations:
estar apremiado por hacer algo || estar presionado para hacer algo || apretarle los tornillos/clavijas a alguien para que haga algo 193

H

habitual offender

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A person who has been convicted of repeated offenses (whether of the same offense or of different offenses).       • Mr. Jenkins is a habitual drunk driving offender.

Suggested Translations:
delincuente habitual/reincidente 194

halfway house

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: [A] residence located in the community where people are placed to either (1) serve all or part of a sentence, or (2) serve a period of time after being released from federal prison, in order to prepare for reentering the community. (http://famm.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/FAQ-Halfway-House-4.24.pdf , accessed 05-07-2014)       • The defendant was sentenced to serve 3 years in custody followed by 6 months in a halfway house, also known as a residential reentry center (RRC).

Suggested Translations:
casa de semilibertad/de media libertad/de transición || casa/centro de fase intermedia || centro transicional/de reinserción 195

hamstring (v.)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Let us support rather than hamstring the efforts of our negotiators. • Mr. X, your position has left me hamstrung (as to what to do next). • I am being hamstrung by your position.

Suggested Translations:
incapacitar || paralizar || impedir || inhabilitar || frustrar (esfuerzos)       • Apoyemos los esfuerzos de nuestros negociadores en vez de frustrarlos.       • Sr. Fulano, su postura me ata las manos (respecto a lo que pueda hacerse a continuación).       • Su postura me deja sin alternativa. 196

handler: dog ~

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• They immediately called the dog handler to secondary (inspection).

Suggested Translations:
guía de canes/de perros policiales || manejador 197

handyman

OCCUPATIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
• He has worked as a handyman all his life.

Suggested Translations:
el mil usos || ser (alguien) un manitas || trabajador de mantenimiento 198

hapless

PSYCH 
Definitions & Examples:
• The psychologist asked, “Do you feel helpless, hopeless and hapless?” Note: Compare with helpless and hopeless.

Suggested Translations:
infortunado 199

harm: no ~, no foul

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• "No harm, no foul," said the judge as he denied the suppression motion because the complaining party had not suffered any prejudice by the untimely delivery of discovery.   

Suggested Translations:
no pasó a mayores || si no ocasiona daño, no hay problema/sanción ||no hubo daños, no hay repercusiones || no hay pena si no hay delito || no hay pena sin injuria/daño || sin daño ni perjuicio no hay falta || aquí no ha pasado nada 200

hate crime

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Commission of an offense where the person acted, at least in part, with ill will, hatred or bias toward, and with a purpose to intimidate, an individual or group because of race, color, religion, sexual orientation or ethnicity. (Barron’s Law Dictionary, 5th ed. 2003)      • The anti-Semitic graffiti was considered a hate crime.

Suggested Translations:
delito motivado por el odio / por prejuicios  201

hate speech

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Speech that carries no meaning other than the expression of hatred for some group such as a particular race, esp. in circumstances in which the communication is likely to provoke violence. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • Racial or homophobic slurs are instances of hate speech that could be argued to be an aggravating circumstance for sentencing purposes.

Suggested Translations:
expresiones de odio || comentario(s) motivado(s) por prejuicios 202

hazel (color)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• His eyes were hazel.

Suggested Translations:
color avellana || café claro verdoso 203

herring: red ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defense attorney’s argument was a red herring: it had nothing to do with the Government’s contentions.

Suggested Translations:
elemento/ardid/pretexto para despistar o distraer || pista falsa 204

hipster

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A person who follows the latest trends and fashions, especially those regarded as being outside the cultural mainstream. (https://premium.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/hipster, accessed 11-09-2016)       • It is easy to spot hipsters with their vintage clothing, glasses and craft beer in hand.

Suggested Translations:
hípster 205

home detention

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A pretrial or sentencing condition that restricts defendants to their residence at all times except for certain activities approved by the court or at the discretion of the probation officer such as education and religious services.       • Mr. Smith requested that his home detention conditions include attendance at his daughter's soccer games, but the judge denied his request. Note: See home incarceration, which is more restrictive than home detention.

Suggested Translations:
detención domiciliaria || [only as a pretrial condition] arraigo domiciliario 206

home incarceration

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A pretrial or sentencing condition that restricts defendants to their residence at all times except for medical necessities and court appearances or other activities specifically approved by the court.      • Mr. Peters requested that his sentence be modified from imprisonment to home incarceration so he could care for his ailing mother. Note: See home detention, which is less restrictive than home incarceration.

Suggested Translations:
reclusión domiciliaria 207

hook, line and sinker

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Used to emphasize that someone has been completely deceived or tricked.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/hook-line-and-sinker?q=hook%2C+line%2C+and+sinker, accessed 02-03-2016)       • The driver was told he would only get a few months of custody if he was caught, and he fell for it hook, line, and sinker.

Suggested Translations:
de cabo a rabo || de pe a pa || caer por lo redondo 208

hope springs eternal

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: People will keep on hoping no matter what the odds. (The American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms, 2003)             • In giving you the lower sentence, I am trusting that you will not reoffend: hope springs eternal.

Suggested Translations:
la esperanza muere al último || la esperanza nunca muere || la esperanza es eterna || la esperanza es lo último que se pierde 209

hum a few bars

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Figuratively, to give a short explanation.      • Counsel, be prepared to hum a few bars for me on minor role for a guy who is high when he's crossing the border in the pedestrian lane and has drugs on him.

Suggested Translations:
explicar en pocas palabras 210

I

ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Investigative and law enforcement agency of the US Department of Homeland Security, DHS.       • ICE agents often testify in federal court as lead investigative agents for the prosecution's case.

Suggested Translations:
Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas 211

ICE attaché

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Official assigned to represent ICE in another country.       • The ICE attaché in Mexico came to testify about the defendant’s alienage.

Suggested Translations:
agregado de ICE/del Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas 212

Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Investigative and law enforcement agency of the US Department of Homeland Security, DHS.      • ICE agents often testify in federal court as lead investigative agents for the prosecution's case.

Suggested Translations:
Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas 213

in limine motions

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A pretrial request that certain inadmissible evidence not be referred to or offered at trial. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 2009).

Suggested Translations:
peticiones previas al juicio || pedimentos/recursos antes de comenzar el juicio || peticiones in limine 214

individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A tax processing number only available for certain nonresident and resident aliens, their spouses, and dependents who cannot get a Social Security Number (SSN). It is a 9-digit number, beginning with the number "9", formatted like an SSN (NNN-NN-NNNN). (https://www.irs.gov/individuals/international-taxpayers/taxpayer-identification-numbers-tin#itin, accessed 11-02-2016)       • The scheme involved fraudulently obtaining ITINs from the Internal Revenue Service.

Suggested Translations:
número de identificación personal del contribuyente || numero de identificación tributaria/fiscal/impositiva 215

indulge

 
Definitions & Examples:
• I can explain further in a sidebar if the Court would indulge further commentary.

Suggested Translations:
permitir 216

intelligently

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Done in a rational way.       • Do you knowingly and intelligently waive your right to a jury trial?

Suggested Translations:
con conocimiento || con el uso de la razón || con entendimiento || con inteligencia 217

interlocutory appeal

TRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An appeal of a ruling by a trial court that is made before the trial itself has concluded. (http://definitions.uslegal.com/i/interlocutory-appeals/, accessed 04-04-2014)       • Some interlocutory appeals involve legal points necessary to the determination of the case, while others involve collateral orders that are wholly separate from the merits of the action. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)

Suggested Translations:
apelación interlocutoria 218

J

jig: the ~ is up

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• It is time for you as a jury to send a clear message to the defendant, "The jig is up, we now know you've been lying."  

Suggested Translations:
se le cayó el teatrito || se acabó el jaleo || se descubrió la movida 219

joint venture theory

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A theory that an illicit act was committed by two or more people who agreed to do it because the opportunity presented itself, without previous planning.             • The Government will try to win a conviction using a joint venture theory to prove its case.

Suggested Translations:
base jurídica o marco jurídico de una operación en conjunto/en común || base jurídica de una operación/empresa conjunta || teoría (legal) de empresa conjunta || teoría de esfuerzos en conjunto 220

judicial notice: take ~ ~

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: For a judge to accept a fact as proved without hearing evidence.       • “I will take judicial notice that January 3, 2001 was a Wednesday,” said the judge.

Suggested Translations:
reconocer/aceptar/tomar el juez algo como un hecho sin exigir prueba || dar fe el juez de algo como un hecho sin que medie prueba || dar por admitido (algo que no es necesario comprobar) 221

juice up

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• He just keeps coming back, getting juiced up and driving.

Suggested Translations:
pistear || tomar tragos || embriagarse || encuetarse  222

K

knock and talk

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Catchy name given to a law enforcement tactic used to achieve entry into premises without having a warrant or without having probable cause for a search warrant. The officers knock at the door and ask to be let in. They inform the occupant, once inside, of their suspicions and ask for consent to search.      • "We were able to search the house after the knock and talk," testified the officer.

Suggested Translations:
táctica de tocar a la puerta para hablar 223

L

laboring: the ~ oar

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Part of a task that requires greater effort.       • The judge thanked Federal Defenders for taking the laboring oar in this multi-defendant case.

Suggested Translations:
el grueso de una labor || parte más difícil de una tarea/faena 224

lam: go on the ~

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• Don’t set bail on this case, he went on the lam last time.

Suggested Translations:
pelarse || darse a la fuga || huir || ausentarse || estar prófugo 225

landscape

 
Definitions & Examples:
• This new information changes the landscape of the case.

Suggested Translations:
panorama 226

leniency

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
• Due to the heinousness of the crime, his request for leniency fell on deaf ears.

Suggested Translations:
clemencia || indulgencia || lenidad || falta de severidad || benevolencia 227

lockdown

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A state of isolation, containment, or restricted access, usually instituted as a security measure; the imposition of this state. Also Computing: the restriction of access to data or systems. (Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2015)       • As a security measure, the entire city was placed on lockdown, with public transportation shut down and citizens advised to stay indoors.       • The inmate was unable to contact his family because the prison was under lockdown after a recent fight.

Suggested Translations:
restricción de acceso como medida de precaución || cierre completo de una institución como medida de seguridad || || prohibición temporal del libre movimiento 228

loop: fingerprint ~

FINGERPRINTS 
Definitions & Examples:
• The loop pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and one delta. (http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint_patterns.html , accessed 4-4-2011) • In order to distinguish between ulnar and radial loops you must: 1) know from which hand the loop pattern comes from and; 2) place your hand palm side down over the top of the impression and determine if the recurving ridges originate from the little finger side or the thumb side. If the ridges flow in from the little finger side this would be an 'ulnar' loop.  If the ridges flow in from the thumb side this would be a 'radial' loop. (http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint_patterns.html , accessed 4-4-2011)

Suggested Translations:
bucle || lazo 229

low-number order

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An order that transfers a new case to the judge who previously handled a related case; officially termed Order of Transfer Pursuant to "Low-Number" Rule (i.e., Rule 57.2). "Low-number" refers to the fact that cases are numbered sequentially and older cases bear lower numbers.        • Once the U.S. Attorney files a notice of related case, the case administrator must prepare a low-number order that transfers the defendant's new case to the previous judge. Note: Refer to attachments for more information.

Suggested Translations:
orden de transferencia (por secuencia numérica) || orden que reasigna una causa nueva al juez que tramitó la causa anterior relacionada 230

M

magistrate: U.S. ~ judge

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A judge appointed for an eight-year term by the U.S. district judges in a federal court to assist them. Magistrate judges handle matters assigned by statute as well as other duties delegated by the district judges.       • The defendant consented to have his plea of guilty taken by a U.S. magistrate judge instead of by the assigned U.S. district court judge, who will adjudicate guilt and impose sentence at a later date. Note: Compare with U.S. district court judge.

Suggested Translations:
juez auxiliar 231

marine agent

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The CBP oversees the Air and Marine Operations Center in their efforts to protect the nation’s borders.      • Customs and Border Protection Air and Marine agents interdicted a vessel transporting 40 illegal aliens from Croatia.

Suggested Translations:
oficial de operaciones marítimas 232

mayhem

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Willful and permanent crippling, mutilation or disfigurement of any part of another's body. (Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law, 1996)       • The defendant was accused of mayhem for disfiguring his wife's face with a razor. 2) Def.: Violent or damaging disorder. (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/mayhem, accessed 03-23-2016)       • The football fans caused such mayhem in the bar that the police and the paramedics had to be called. 3) Def.: Rowdy confusion or disruption. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • It was mayhem on the highway when the whole city lost power during the evening commute.

Suggested Translations:
1) (delito de) mutilación   2) motín || trifulca || revuelta || violencia con daño deliberado   3) caos || tumulto || desorden || mitote || alharaca || bulla || alboroto 233

meat grinder: put through the ~ ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Submit someone to a difficult situation.       • The police put the suspect through the meat grinder during the aggresive interrogation.

Suggested Translations:
hacer pasar a alguien por un calvario || hacer sudar a alguien la gota gorda || hacerle la vida de cuadritos a alguien || sacarle el jugo a alguien || exprimir a alguien || hacer pasar a alguien un mal rato 234

meet one's match

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Encounter one’s equal in strength or ability.(http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/meet-one%27s-match?q=meet+one%27s+match, accessed 02-03-2016)      • The undefeated defense attorney finally met his match when he faced the seasoned prosecutor.

Suggested Translations:
toparse con/encontrar la horma de su zapato || enfrentar a alguien de igual a igual 235

mem. dispo. (Memorandum disposition)

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: It is an unpublished decision or disposition.       • The arguments in court dealt with whether the decision was a published decision by the 9th Circuit of Appeals or a mem. dispo.

Suggested Translations:
resolución no publicada || resolución por memorandum || resolución que no sienta precedente 236

memorandum disposition (mem. dispo.)

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: It is an unpublished decision or disposition.       • The arguments in court dealt with whether the decision was a published decision by the 9th Circuit of Appeals or a mem dispo.

Suggested Translations:
resolución no publicada || resolución por memorandum || resolución que no sienta precedente 237

memorandum of points and authorities

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• Counsel filed a Memorandum of Points and Authorities in opposition to the Government’s motion.

Suggested Translations:
escrito/memorándum de argumentos jurídicos y antecedentes/precedentes/jurisprudencia 238

mercy

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
• Mrs. Wu, the defendant’s mother, asked the Court to please have mercy on her son.

Suggested Translations:
misericordia || clemencia || piedad 239

mickey: slip someone a ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• So what are you saying? That someone slipped you a mickey and therefore you were not aware of what you were doing when you broke the law?

Suggested Translations:
ponerle/echarle algo en la bebida a alguien (para drogarlo) 240

millennials

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: People who reached young adulthood in the early 21st century. Known for their familiarity with the internet and social media, they are perceived as being individualists who have a high level of global and environmental awareness.       • Even though millenials grew up in a period of affluence, they are faced with challenges when trying to join the workforce.

Suggested Translations:
milénicos || mileniales 241

minimal role

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, defendants can be awarded a minimal role adjustment if they are found to be among the least culpable of the participants in an offense.        • A defendant who qualifies for a minimal role adjustment is one who lacked knowledge or understanding of the scope and structure of a criminal enterprise and of the activities of others.

Suggested Translations:
papel/función/rol de mínima culpabilidad/importancia/participación 242

minor role

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The Federal Sentencing Guidelines allow for a defendant to receive a minor role adjustment if she/he is less culpable than most other participants in the offense conduct.       • "You can get minor role and obtain two levels off," said the attorney to his client. Note: The phrase minor role is often used elliptically to mean "minor role adjustment." See minimal role which is distinct from minor role.

Suggested Translations:
papel/función/rol de menor culpabilidad/importancia/participación 243

monitor: electronic ~

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
• Electronic monitors are a good supervisory tool.

Suggested Translations:
monitor electrónico 244

motion for discovery

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
• The motion for discovery is frequently used to toll the speedy trial clock.

Suggested Translations:
petición/pedimento/solicitud/promoción (México) para que se exhiban/revelen/descubran (Colombia) pruebas [en poder de la contraparte] 245

motion hearing/trial setting date

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Date set by the magistrate judge for defendant’s initial appearance before the district court judge.      • We’ll set your motion hearing/trial setting date for June.

Suggested Translations:
fecha para agendar juicio y pedimentos 246

motion to compel discovery

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A party's request that the court force the party's opponent to respond to the party's discovery request. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • Defense counsel filed a motion to compel discovery, expecting to receive exonerating materials.

Suggested Translations:
petición/pedimento/recurso para forzar/compeler/obligar (a la contraparte) a que exhiba/revele/descubra (Colombia) las pruebas pertinentes 247

motions in limine

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A pretrial request that certain inadmissible evidence not be referred to or offered at trial. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 2009).

Suggested Translations:
peticiones previas al juicio || pedimentos/recursos antes de comenzar el juicio || peticiones in limine 248

moving papers

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• I included that in my moving papers.

Suggested Translations:
pliegos petitorios 249

mug shot

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
1) • My passport’s mug shot makes me look 10 years older. 2) • Elvis’s mug shot was taken on a visit to FBI headquarters.

Suggested Translations:
1) fotografía de la cara 2) foto de archivo policial || foto que se toma al fichar (al detenido) || foto de ficha 250

N

ninth: to be at the bottom of the ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• “We are at the bottom of the ninth,” said the judge to the defendant whose case was set to go to trial the following day.

Suggested Translations:
ser el momento de la verdad || ser ahora o nunca || estar a la segunda (mitad) del noveno || acabarse el tiempo || ser la última oportunidad para cambiar el resultado 251

no-goodnik

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: No good, bum, slacker, loser.      • The judge referred to the defendant as a no-goodnik after his fourth failure to appear.

Suggested Translations:
bueno para nada || vago || inútil 252

note (v.)

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) • I note that I have not received the financial affidavit. 2) • The objection will be noted for the record.

Suggested Translations:
1) notar || percatarse   2) hacer constar || asentar || dejar asentado 253

notice to appear

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) sent a Notice to Appear to the alien ordering her to appear for an immigration proceeding. The notice also advised her of the consequences of failing to appear.

Suggested Translations:
citación de comparecencia || notificación/aviso a comparecer || cédula citatoria/de citación 254

O

offer of proof

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A presentation of facts someone intends to prove. • In order to preserve the issue of admissibility for appeal, it is in counsel’s best interest to make an offer of proof (outside of the presence of the jury) with regard to any excluded evidence. Note: Compare with proffer.

Suggested Translations:
propuesta de prueba/elementos probatorios || ofrecer/proponer (pruebas, elementos de comprobación) a modo de adelanto/preámbulo 255

on all fours

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defendant’s case is on all fours with the Ninth Circuit’s latest decision on that matter.

Suggested Translations:
ser/presentar una analogía exacta || concordar perfectamente || ser casi idéntico a 256

open plea

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A plea of guilty to all of the charges filed by the prosecution without a negotiated plea agreement. Note: Also referred to as “plead straight up” and “plead to the sheet.”

Suggested Translations:
contestación a los cargos sin convenio || declaración de culpabilidad no sujeta a acuerdo o negociación previa con la fiscalía 257

opposition brief

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Written legal argument against a previously filed motion.      • Your opposition briefs were to be filed at least 7 calendar days before today, the hearing date.

Suggested Translations:
argumentos escritos de oposición/de la contraparte 258

P

par for the course

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: What is normal or expected in any given circumstance.      • Getting a fast-track departure for first-time offenders is par for the course.

Suggested Translations:
de esperarse/suponerse || propio de 259

parallel construction

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Law enforcement technique whereby a parallel or separate evidentiary basis for a criminal investigation is developed to conceal the true origin of an investigation. This phrase often refers to situations in which an intelligence agency that conducts surveillance shares a tip with another law enforcement agency, and that law enforcement agency is instructed not to reveal the source of the tip and instead create a different evidentiary basis for the investigation.      • Parallel Construction is a technique used by law enforcement to hide the fact that evidence in a criminal case originated with the NSA.  (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-van-buren/parallel-construction-unc_b_5606381.html, accessed 09-03-2014).

Suggested Translations:
desarrollo de fundamentos paralelos 260

pardon (n.)

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The use of the executive power to forgive a person convicted of a crime thus removing any remaining penalties or punishments. (http://dictionary.law.com/Default.aspx?selected=1443, accessed 05-21-2014)       • A mass pardon by the President is expected for hundreds of first-time drug offenders serving minimum mandatory sentences. Note: Compare with reprieve and commutation.

Suggested Translations:
indulto total || perdón 261

parole

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: In criminal law, "[t]he conditional release of a prisoner from imprisonment before the full sentence has been served." (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • After serving his time in federal prison, my client will need to face a parole violation in state court. 2) Def.: In immigration law, "temporary admission to the United States of an alien for urgent humanitarian reasons or for a significant public benefit, until the conditions supporting admission cease to exist or are found to be inadequate." (Garner's Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd ed. 2011).       • The defense attorney requested that parole be granted for an essential witness who lives in Tijuana and who currently has no permission to enter the United States.

Suggested Translations:
1) libertad preparatoria (México) || libertad condicional (en ocasiones también se usa para traducir probation) || libertad vigilada (de la penitenciaría)   2) permiso de entrada/ingreso condicional al país       262

pat down/patdown (n.)

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A frisk; a cursory search of a person by the running of both hands over the person’s clothed body.       • The officer performed a pat down search of the defendant.       • Before being admitted to the courtroom, people were submitted to a pat down in search of contraband and/or weapons.

Suggested Translations:
cacheo || cateo físico || registro (de una persona) || registro a palmaditas 263

peer pressure

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Different factors can come into play such as peer pressure, situational pressure and family pressure.

Suggested Translations:
presión de los pares || presión social/de grupo 264

pen register (device)

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A device or process that traces outgoing signals from a specific phone or computer to their destination. Often used by law enforcement as the advanced counterpart of an outgoing call log. A pen register produces a list of the phone numbers or Internet addresses contacted, but does not include substantive information transmitted by the signals. (https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/pen_register , accessed 04-18-2018)      • The pen register device collected several outgoing calls to a co-conspirator in the case. Note: See Pen Register and Trap and Trace Devices Act.

Suggested Translations:
aparato de registro de comunicaciones (electrónicas) salientes || aparato para el registro de llamadas salientes 265

Pen Register and Trap and Trace Devices Act (Pen/Trap Act)

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A law that prohibits the installation or use of a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order. It originally referred to telephonic land line communications but now includes other means of communication such as by e-mail, cellular phones, and Internet connected phones that can be tracked.       • Some states have also enacted legislation similar to the Pen Register and Trap and Trace Devices Act. Note: See pen register (device) and trap and trace device.

Suggested Translations:
Ley sobre el Registro de Comunicaciones por Teléfono o Internet || Ley que Reglamenta el Uso de los Aparatos de Registro, Captura y Rastreo de Comunicaciones (Electrónicas) Entrantes y Salientes || Ley Pen/Trap 266

Pen/Trap Act

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A law that prohibits the installation or use of a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order. It originally referred to telephonic land line communications but now includes other means of communication such as by email, cellular phones, and Internet connected phones that can be tracked.      • Some states have also enacted legislation similar to the Pen/Trap Act. Note: See pen register and trap and trace device.

Suggested Translations:
Ley sobre el Registro de Comunicaciones por Teléfono o Internet || Ley que Reglamenta el Uso de los Aparatos de Registro, Captura y Rastreo de Comunicaciones (Electrónicas) Entrantes y Salientes || Ley Pen/Trap 267

penny: in for a ~, in for a pound

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Expressing a commitment to see a course of action through to its completion, whatever that may involve. (Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2005)       • You were willing to cross drugs thinking it was marihuana, but you are now facing a harsher sentence because it was methamphetamine. In for a penny, in for a pound.       • As attorney of record you are obligated to represent your client through trial whether or not there are payment issues between the two of you. In for a penny, in for a pound. Note: Similar expressions include in for a dime, in for a dollar and in for an inch, in for a mile.

Suggested Translations:
ya entrados, no hay vuelta atrás || preso por mil, preso por mil quinientos || ya que estamos en el baile, bailemos 268

personal frolic

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Significant deviation from being engaged in the performance of official duties.      • The judge had to determine whether the agent's questioning of the defendant fell within the scope of the agent's official duties, or whether it was merely the product of his personal frolic.

Suggested Translations:
desvío significativo de los deberes oficiales por razones personales || actuar fuera de lo debido/esperado por gusto personal 269

Petition for Action (on Conditions of Pretrial Release)

PROB/PRETRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: In federal court, a written request usually made by a probation or pretrial services officer in which the officer asks the court to resolve a matter regarding a defendant's release conditions.​       • The probation officer in the Northern District of Alabama filed a Petition for Action on Conditions of Pretrial Release requesting a bond review hearing so that the defendant can answer to the allegations that he violated curfew.

Suggested Translations:
petición/solicitud de medidas || petición para que se dicten medidas (sobre las condiciones de libertad provisional)   270

plea agreement

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.      • In the plea agreement, the prosecutor agreed to recommend a sentencing reduction for acceptance of responsibility.

Suggested Translations:
convenio declaratorio || acuerdo resolutorio 271

plead to the sheet

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Pleading guilty to all of the charges filed by the prosecution without a negotiated plea agreement. Note: Also referred to as “plead straight up” and “open plea.”

Suggested Translations:
declararse culpable sin convenio declaratorio || contestar al cargo sin convenio por escrito 272

pocket trash

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• It was an opportunity to view and inspect the contents of the suspect’s wallet and all his pocket trash.

Suggested Translations:
artículos sueltos que trae uno en el bolsillo 273

pound: in for a penny, in for a ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Expressing a commitment to see a course of action through to its completion, whatever that may involve. (Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2005)       • You were willing to cross drugs thinking it was marihuana, but you are now facing a harsher sentence because it was methamphetamine. In for a penny, in for a pound.       • As attorney of record you are obligated to represent your client through trial whether or not there are payment issues between the two of you. In for a penny, in for a pound. Note: Similar expressions include in for a dime, in for a dollar and in for an inch, in for a mile.

Suggested Translations:
ya entrados, no hay vuelta atrás || preso por mil, preso por mil quinientos || ya que estamos en el baile, bailemos 274

predicate act/offense

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: An earlier offense that can be used to enhance a sentence imposed for a later conviction.       •Many sentencing enhancements require the existence of a predicate offense. 2) Def.: Under RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act), a predicate act is one of two or more related acts of racketeering necessary to establish a pattern. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • Extortion and blackmail are examples of RICO predicate acts.

Suggested Translations:
1) infracción previa || delito principal || acto ilícito fundamentado 2) uno de los actos ilícitos que fundamenta (un patrón de delincuencia organizada) || acto fundamental 275

predicate fact

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A fact from which a presumption or inference arises.      • If you are given the predicate fact that all men are mortal, and you are told that Socrates is a man, you can infer that Socrates is mortal.

Suggested Translations:
hecho constituyente/constitutivo/presuntivo 276

pretrial release

PROB/PRETRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To be free from imprisonment while awaiting trial or while criminal proceedings are pending.       • While on pretrial release the defendant smoked marihuana and had to be admonished not to do it again.

Suggested Translations:
libertad provisional || libertad previa a juicio 277

probable cause

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A reasonable ground to suspect that a person has committed or is committing a crime or that a place contains specific items connected with a crime. The Fourth Amendment defines it as more than a bare suspicion but less than evidence that would justify a conviction.(Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • We need a probable cause hearing to determine if you committed the violations alleged on the OSC, order to show cause.

Suggested Translations:
motivo fundado para proceder || motivos o causas justificadas/fundadas 278

procedural law

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: In criminal law and procedure, substantive law declares what acts are crimes and imposes penalties, while procedural law is concerned with the fair application of due process. Procedural law sets the steps to be followed in the prosecution of a case.        • The different degrees of a crime are defined by substantive law. On the other hand, the application of the right to a speedy trial is governed by procedural law. Note: Compare with substantive law.

Suggested Translations:
derecho procesal/adjetivo 279

proffer (n.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An offer, suggestion or proposal of information.       • It is acceptable for the prosecution to proceed by way of proffer in a detention hearing because this type of hearing is neither a discovery device for the defense nor a trial on the merits of the case. Note: Compare with offer of proof.

Suggested Translations:
información propuesta || propuesta/proposición de fundamentos || adelanto/preámbulo de lo que se va a presentar 280

proffer (v.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To offer or tender (something, esp. evidence) for immediate acceptance.(Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • In its presentation, the government proffered that the defendant had strong ties to Canada.

Suggested Translations:
ofrecer/proponer información/fundamentos a modo de adelanto/preámbulo || podría comprobar los siguientes hechos/lo siguiente 281

prong

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Courts often use this word to describe one part of a multifaceted–and often formalistic–legal test. The metaphor effectively shows that each part of the test must be met for a particular doctrine to apply: just as prongs are necessary to hold the stone in a piece of jewelry, so each element of a test (i.e., each “prong”) must be satisfied before the legal doctrine applies. (Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd ed. 2011)       • The defendant must meet all five prongs in order to qualify for a safety valve reduction.

Suggested Translations:
componente || requisito || condición 282

pronged (adj.)

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Having a usually specified number of parts or approaches. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pronged, accessed 09-26-2013)       • The defense gave a two-pronged argument: the defendant had no knowledge, and he had no motive for committing the crime.

Suggested Translations:
enfoque || flanco || frente || vía 283

proof: the ~ is in the pudding

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: You can only judge the quality of something after you have tried, used, or experienced it. (http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/proof-of-the-pudding-is-in-the-eating, accessed 11-09-2016)       • We shall see how well you do on probation; the proof is in the pudding. Note: A variant of this proverbial phrase is the proof of the pudding is in the eating.

Suggested Translations:
ver para creer || ya se verá a la hora de la verdad || no se sabe si algo es bueno hasta que se lo pone a prueba 284

provide for

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) • Did your parents provide for you when you were young- such as food, shelter and clothing? 2) • The defendant uses all of his income to provide for his family.

Suggested Translations:
1) proporcionar lo necesario 2) mantener 285

pusher: of drugs

DRUGS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A person who promotes or initiates the use or purchase of something; a tout, a peddler; esp. a person who sells a narcotic drug or drugs illegally. (http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/155123?redirectedFrom=pusher#eid, accessed 03-03-2017)       • "He is not a facilitator, he is a pusher!" was the judge's forceful response to the defense attorney's attempt to minimize his client's role.       • In the conspiracy my client was only the drug pusher, not the kingpin.

Suggested Translations:
el que mueve/vende/promueve drogas || el conecte || camello || tirador || vendedor de drogas 286

R

rationale

 
Definitions & Examples:
• You had your rationale to do what you did.

Suggested Translations:
razonamiento || razones || lógica || motivos en que se basa 287

raw data

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Your Honor, we cannot base our decision on raw data; it still needs to be analyzed.

Suggested Translations:
datos en bruto || datos brutos || datos sin procesar 288

reasonably foreseeable

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• Since you were being paid $1000 to drive the car across the border, do you admit that it was reasonably foreseeable that there were drugs in the vehicle?

Suggested Translations:
razonablemente previsible || ser razonable anticipar 289

reciprocal discovery

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Duty of the defense to give certain evidence to the prosecution, such as qualifying pretrial statements given by a defense witness.       • The Court found that the defense's failure to produce the expert witness’s curriculum vitae violated its reciprocal discovery obligations. 2) Def.: The evidence that must be disclosed by the defense to the prosecution.       • The psychological evaluation written by the defense's expert was part of the reciprocal discovery given to the prosecution.

Suggested Translations:
1) exhibición/revelación recíproca de pruebas pertinentes [en poder de la defensa a la fiscalía] 2) pruebas en posesión de la defensa sujetas a exhibición/revelación recíproca 290

removal

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: The transfer or moving of a person or thing from one location, position, or residence to another. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • The defendant, sought by the Southern District of New York, consented to her removal to that jurisdiction. 2) Def.: Expulsion of an alien from the United States. This may be based on grounds of inadmissibility or deportability. (http://www.uscis.gov/tools/glossary/removal, accessed 05-27-2015) In immigration proceedings a removal can refer to either exclusion (for inadmissibility) or deportation.       • How many removals to Mexico has the defendant had since 2008?

Suggested Translations:
1) traslado (p. ej. de un estado a otro) 2) expulsión (de los Estados Unidos de América a otro país)     291

representation

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: A presentation of fact -- either by words or by conduct -- made to induce someone to act; especially to enter into a contract. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • Have any other promises or representations been made to you besides those contained in your written plea agreement? 2) Def.: The act or an instance of standing for or acting on behalf of another, esp. by a lawyer on behalf of a client. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • Are you satisfied with your attorney's representation in this case?

Suggested Translations:
1) afirmación || manifestación || aseveración (para inducir a alguien a hacer algo)        • ¿Le han prometido o le han dicho algo además de lo que ya está por escrito en el convenio declaratorio? 2) representación legal 292

reprieve (n.)

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A temporary postponement of a penalty, especially a death sentence. (Garner's Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd ed. 2011)       • The defendant requested a reprieve of his death sentence to allow time to examine newly discovered DNA evidence. Note: Compare with commutation and pardon.

Suggested Translations:
suspensión/aplazamiento temporal de la ejecución de una pena 293

reservation number

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• This defendant had reservation no. 47 at the correctional center.

Suggested Translations:
número de reservación/reserva 294

residence

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A place or locality where a person is present, and of which he/she is an inhabitant.       • Peter has more than one residence, but only one domicile. Note: Compare with domicile and abode: usual place of ~.

Suggested Translations:
lugar de residencia (de una persona) 295

residence or usual place of abode

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• The server served the summons at the offender’s residence or usual place of abode. Note: Phrase as found in documents in the context of service of process within the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Suggested Translations:
el lugar de residencia del individuo o su domicilio habitual 296

resonate

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To correspond closely or harmoniously. (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th ed.)      • ​The main argument in your brief does not resonate with me; that is not what the evidence shows.

Suggested Translations:
tener sentido para alguien || sonar de acuerdo/concordar con lo que alguien entiende || convencer/cuadrar con        297

restage (the crime scene)

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
• The Government agreed to restage the crime scene for the defense.

Suggested Translations:
recrear || reconstruir 298

reversible error

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An error that affects a party's substantive rights or the case's outcome, and thus is grounds for reversal if the party properly objected at trial. Also known as harmful error, prejudicial error and fatal error. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009) Note: See fatal error.

Suggested Translations:
error irremediable || error que puede constituir fundamento para la anulación de un caso 299

ridge: fingerprint ~

FINGERPRINTS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Impression of the friction ridges found on the inner surface of a finger or a thumb. (http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint.html, accessed 3-30-2011)       • The expert based his opinion on Mr. Cascabel’s fingerprint ridge outlines.

Suggested Translations:
cresta 300

S

safety valve

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A provision under Title 18 of the United States Code that “limits the applicability of minimum mandatory sentences” if the defendant meets certain requirements.(18 U.S.C. §3553 (f))      • Due to your extensive criminal history you are not eligible for safety valve, therefore you can't be sentenced below the minimum mandatory sentence.

Suggested Translations:
medida de seguridad/protección || cláusula de escape || válvula de seguridad/escape 301

sandblasting

 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A type of abrasive blasting that uses a jet of sand projected by compressed air or steam to clean, polish, engrave or otherwise affect hard surfaces (such as glass, stone, or metal).      • His job involved sandblasting and painting U.S. Navy ships at the NASSCO shipyard.

Suggested Translations:
arenado || chorreado con arena || pulir/limpiar/despintar/desoxidar/esmerilar con un chorro de arena 302

Second Chance (Program)

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A program that provides job readiness training, sober living facilities and mental health services for people who are homeless or reentering society after a time in prison. Affiliated with STRIVE.       • The defendant was ordered to participate in the Second Chance program. Note: See STRIVE.

Suggested Translations:
Programa “Second Chance” (de otra oportunidad) 303

Second Chance Act

ALT/REHAB/DVRSN 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: This law awards grants to organizations that provide services to people transitioning from incarceration back into society in order to reduce recidivism.

Suggested Translations:
Ley de la segunda oportunidad || Ley de una segunda oportunidad 304

self-serving (statement)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• Self-serving statements are a type of inadmissible hearsay.

Suggested Translations:
declaración que se hace por interés/para beneficio propio || que favorece su posición. 305

serve (v.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) • The opposing party was served with a summons at his usual place of abode. 2) • Have you ever served in a jury trial, Mr. Jones?

Suggested Translations:
1) hacer entrega de || notificar (debidamente) 2) participar (en un jurado) || fungir (como miembro de un jurado) || ser miembro (de un jurado) 306

shot caller

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The person that calls the shots; the decision maker within an organization. Also used to refer to the leader of a gang.      • The smugglers helped identify the shot caller within the organization.

Suggested Translations:
el mandamás || el mero mero || el chipocludo || el jefe 307

silver lining: every cloud has a ~~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Being in jail has been tough, but it has helped me to stop doing drugs. I guess every cloud does have a silver lining.

Suggested Translations:
no hay mal que por bien no venga || resquicio de esperanza 308

slight (on someone)

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• No, Your Honor, it was a slight on me, not on the way the brief had been written.

Suggested Translations:
desaire || desprecio para o hacia (alguien) 309

slippery slope

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• Accepting the loan from the known drug dealer led him down a slippery slope to a criminal conviction.

Suggested Translations:
camino o terreno resbaladizo/pantanoso/escabroso/espinoso/peligroso || precedente peligroso || precipitación riesgosa || cuesta abajo 310

Smarter Sentencing Act

SENTENCING 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A bill that proposed reducing minimum mandatory sentences for certain drug offenders.       • The Smarter Sentencing Act sought to focus limited federal resources on the most serious offenders.

Suggested Translations:
proyecto de ley para optimizar la imposición de penas || proyecto de ley para reducir las penas mínimas obligatorias en ciertos casos de drogas 311

soluble

 
Definitions & Examples:
• “Some cases are just not soluble,” said the judge.

Suggested Translations:
soluble || solucionable 312

spotty (performance)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The officer characterized the defendant's performance on pretrial supervision as spotty at best.

Suggested Translations:
con altibajos || imperfecto || poco uniforme || irregular || dudoso 313

stalking

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The act or instance of following or watching another by stealth.       • He was found guilty of stalking his ex-girlfriend.

Suggested Translations:
acechar || observar sin ser visto/a escondidas y con cuidado 314

stand by

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Notwithstanding the defendant's plight, I stand by my recommendation of 30 months.

Suggested Translations:
remitirse a|| atenerse a || mantener || mantenerse firme || reafirmarse en || reiterarse en 315

stash house

DRUGS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A house where contraband is hidden.       • Authorities discovered twenty kilos of marihuana inside a stash house.

Suggested Translations:
clavo || clavadero || casa clavo || casa escondite 316

stateless boat

MARITIME 
Definitions & Examples:
• The stateless boat was seized off the coast of San Diego.

Suggested Translations:
barco apátrida/sin nacionalidad 317

status crime/offense

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An offense that only a certain category of people can be charged with, such as felon in possession of a firearm. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • The defendant's record doesn't include any crimes of drugs or violence, only status offenses (for being in the country illegally).

Suggested Translations:
delito por su condición jurídica || delito en virtud de su estado/situación legal 318

stealth

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The sentencing enhancement is warranted due to the amount of stealth involved in his prior criminal conduct.

Suggested Translations:
conducta sigilosa/furtiva/solapada 319

stick in the eye

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• I gave you a chance and you are back in three weeks. That’s like a stick in the eye. • Last time I was lenient with you and all I got for placing my trust in you was a stick in eye.

Suggested Translations:
afronta || burla || insulto 320

stink-eye: give someone the ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: To stare at someone in a hostile manner. (Green's Dictionary of Slang, digital edition, 2017)       • The boss gave me the stink-eye when I was late to the meeting.

Suggested Translations:
ver feo a alguien || mirar mal a alguien || mirar a alguien con mala cara || ponerle mala cara a alguien || dar a alguien una mirada de odio/desprecio 321

straight up: plead ~

COURT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Pleading guilty to all of the charges filed by the prosecution without a negotiated plea agreement. Note: Also referred to as “open plea” and “plead to the sheet.”

Suggested Translations:
declararse culpable sin convenio declaratorio || contestar al cargo sin convenio por escrito 322

straw buyer

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A person who makes a purchase on behalf of another person. A straw buyer is used when the real buyer cannot complete the transaction for some reason. (http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/straw-buyer.asp , 09-11-2013)        • I've been reading in the news that they want to start cracking down on straw buyers who purchase guns and then supply them to criminals.

Suggested Translations:
comprador ficticio || testaferro || prestanombre || persona interpósita/interpuesta 323

STRIVE

NAMES OF ORGANIZATIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A job training model developed in New York City in the 1980s to help individuals find permanent employment and become self-sufficient. Participants include individuals who are homeless or have been recently released from prison as well as at-risk youth and recovering addicts.       • The judge was hoping that participation in the STRIVE program would prove beneficial to the defendant. Note: See Second Chance.

Suggested Translations:
Programa STRIVE || Programa de capacitación laboral STRIVE 324

submission

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: The action or an act of submitting something to another (freq. a higher authority) for decision or consideration. (http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/192823?redirectedFrom=submission#eid, accessed 02-16-2017)       • The submission of applications for admission to the Bar has to be done online. 2) Def.: Something submitted for decision or consideration; a point of view, a theory of a case; a proposal, an application; esp. a [written or oral] proposition or argument submitted by counsel to a judge or jury.        • The judge ordered both parties to file their submissions by June 1st. 3) Def.: A yielding or readiness to yield to the authority, [claims] or will of another (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)        • The defendant's submission to the Court's jurisdiction enabled the case to proceed. 4) Def.: A contract in which the parties agree to refer their dispute to a third party for resolution. Also termed submission agreement. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014) and arbitration agreement.       • Due to the parties' submission, they had no choice but to accept the arbitrator's decision. Note: See under submission.

Suggested Translations:
1) presentación || entrega 2) escritos/alegatos/peticiones (presentados/entregados ante un tribunal) 3) sumisión || sometimiento 4) acuerdo de someterse a la decisión de un árbitro o un amigable componedor (Romañach Jr., Julio. Dictionary of Legal Terms, 2006),  o compromisario 325

submission: under ~

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Being considered by the court; under advisement. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • I will take this matter under submission. Our next status hearing is on March 1st. Note: In this context, under submission is synonymous with under advisement.

Suggested Translations:
darle (a un asunto) su debida consideración || diferir la decisión para considerar un asunto debidamente ||estudiar un asunto detenidamente antes de resolverlo en definitiva || reservarse el fallo || estar en período de consulta 326

submit

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: Present (a proposal, application, or other document) to a person or body for consideration or judgment. (https://premium.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/submit , accessed 02-15-2017)       • University professors are often required to submit papers for publication in academic journals on a regular basis.       • The prosecution submits exhibits #1 and #2 for identification purposes only. 2) Def.: To end the presentation of further evidence in (a case) and tender a legal position for decision. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)       • I submit on my sentencing memorandum, Your Honor.       • The Defense submits, Your Honor. 3) Def.: (Especially in judicial contexts) suggest; argue (https://premium.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/submit , accessed 02-15-2017)       • Your Honor, Ms. Pérez respectfully submits that the prosecution failed to provide sufficient notice of expert witnesses in this case.       • We would submit that the defendant is not guilty, Your Honor.

Suggested Translations:
1) presentar || ofrecer || radicar || interponer || introducir || someter 2) remitir/dejar algo a la debida consideración/al buen criterio/juicio/dictamen (de la autoridad judicial) || remitirse a algo 3) sugerir || proponer || plantear || sostener || afirmar || explicar || insistir || alegar 327

subpoena (n.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A court order commanding the presence of a witness under a penalty of fine for failure. (Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd ed. 2011)      • They have to appear to testify based on a subpoena. Note: A subpoena ad testificandum is a subpoena to testify; usually, when subpoena is used alone, the word refers to this type. A subpoena duces tecum commands the witness not only to appear but also to bring specific books, papers, or records.  (Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd ed. 2011)

Suggested Translations:
orden judicial de comparecencia || citatorio 328

substantive law

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: In criminal law and procedure, substantive law declares what acts are crimes and imposes penalties, while procedural law sets the steps by which a violator is brought to punishment.       •The different degrees of a crime are defined by substantive law. On the other hand, the right to a speedy trial is an example of a right that is protected by procedural law. Note: Compare with procedural law.

Suggested Translations:
derecho sustantivo/material/de fondo 329

substantive motion

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A motion relating to substantive rather than procedural matters. Generally speaking, substantive motions come in two forms: as motions to suppress or to dismiss.       •The district judge decides all substantive motions.

Suggested Translations:
petición sustantiva || pedimento/moción de fondo 330

summon (v.)

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• The witness to the car accident was summoned to appear at the deposition.

Suggested Translations:
emplazar || citar || requerir 331

summons (n.)

DOCUMENTS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An order by a court requiring someone to appear.      • The defendant was unwilling to comply with a summons compelling him to produce his tax returns.

Suggested Translations:
emplazamiento || citatorio || citación 332

summons: jury ~

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A legal demand for a person to appear in court to serve as a juror in a grand jury investigation or trial. Failure to report may result in a fine or imprisonment.       • Linda received a jury summons to appear on June 30th for jury duty.

Suggested Translations:
citatorio para formar parte del jurado 333

supplemental motion

MOTIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
• The judge granted the supplemental motion filed by defense counsel.

Suggested Translations:
petición/pedimento/recurso adicional/ suplementaria/o 334

sweat patch

DRUGS 
Definitions & Examples:
• Laboratory results from a PharmCheck sweat patch came back positive for methamphetamine.

Suggested Translations:
parche dérmico/cutáneo para detectar [el consumo de] sustancias || parche analizador del sudor || parche toxicológico 335

sympathy

TRIAL 
Definitions & Examples:
• Jurors should not be influenced by feelings of sympathy towards the defendant.

Suggested Translations:
compasión 336

T

tale of the tape: not give the entire ~

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• I am not sure counsel is giving me the entire tale of the tape; some facts seem to be missing.

Suggested Translations:
no dar todos los pormenores || no ser la versión completa 337

telecommunications facility

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
• He was convicted for using a telecommunications facility to broker a drug transaction.

Suggested Translations:
sistema/medios de telecomunicaciones 338

tenable (position)

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Your client’s claim that he was not aware of the 1,000 lbs. of marijuana next to him is not tenable.

Suggested Translations:
(postura o posición) sustentable/sostenible/defendible 339

thumb: to ~ one’s nose at

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• “I don't think Mr. N. is thumbing his nose at US laws, or anything like that,” said the attorney to the judge.

Suggested Translations:
mofarse de || burlarse de || pintarle un violín || valerle... || mandarlo al diablo || importarle un bledo 340

thumb: to ~ one’s nose at someone or something

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
• In the eyes of the Court, the defendant thumbed his nose at his supervised release terms.

Suggested Translations:
(no) importarle un bledo/comino/pepino (a alguien) || mostrar desdén 341

Total Station

EXPERT TESTIMONY 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An electronic-optical surveying instrument       • The investigators reconstructed the crime scene when developing the case against the alleged rapist and gunman relying on information gathered through the use of a Total Station.

Suggested Translations:
aparato/instrumento topográfico (de agrimensura) || equipo topográfico Estación Total   342

tow a boat/vessel

MARITIME 
Definitions & Examples:
• The U.S. Coast Guard cutter called for backup in order to have the seized vessel towed back to shore.

Suggested Translations:
remolcar una embarcación 343

track: get back on ~

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• “Your Honor, this is a fast-track case that fell off the tracks, but it’s now back on track,” explained the attorney when requesting that his case be continued. Note: See fall off the tracks and fast-track case.

Suggested Translations:
(volver a) encarrilarse                • Este caso es como un tren que se descarriló de la vía de resolución rápida y se volvió a encarrilar. 344

tracker/tracking warrant

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A warrant that authorizes placing a tracking device on an object such as a vehicle.       • The agents requested a tracker warrant from the district judge in order to place a GPS tracking device on the suspect's car.

Suggested Translations:
orden judicial para rastrear o colocar un aparato de rastreo 345

tracks: fall off the ~

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
• “Your Honor, this is a fast-track case that fell off the tracks, but it’s now back on track,” explained the attorney when requesting that his case be continued. Note: See get back on track and fast-track case.

Suggested Translations:
descarrilarse                • Este caso es como un tren que se descarriló de la vía de resolución rápida y se volvió a encarrilar. 346

transdermal alcohol measuring device

DRUGS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Ankle or wrist bracelet that samples perspiration to detect alcohol.       • The information gathered through a transdermal alcohol measuring device is automatically transmitted to a remote location for monitoring purposes. Note: Examples include the SCRAM (Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring), the TAD (Transdermal Alcohol Detection) and the WrisTAS (Wrist Transdermal Alcohol Sensor) devices.

Suggested Translations:
detector transdérmico/percutáneo de alcohol || dispositivo detector de alcohol a través de la piel 347

transient

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defendant is a transient and is therefore difficult to supervise.

Suggested Translations:
persona sin domicilio fijo 348

trap and trace device

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A device or process that records the sources of incoming signals to a specific phone or computer. Often used by law enforcement as the advanced counterpart of Caller ID. A trap and trace device identifies the phone numbers or Internet addresses of incoming signals, but does not include substantive information transmitted by those signals. (https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/trap_and_trace_device , accessed 04-18-2018)      • The FBI considers tracking communications through trap and trace devices essential in the monitoring of terrorism activity. Note: See Pen Register and Trap and Trace Devices Act.

Suggested Translations:
aparato de captura y rastreo de llamadas entrantes || aparato para el registro de llamadas entrantes 349

true finding

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: In juvenile court, a ruling by the judge that there is enough evidence to find beyond a reasonable doubt that a minor did commit the acts alleged.       • Your Honor, the defendant sustained a true finding in juvenile court for delinquency in 1995. Note: In juvenile court, a true finding may also be referred to as a sustained finding.

Suggested Translations:
determinación de responsabilidad penal || determinación o fallo fundado 350

U

underlying

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The defense attorney asked the judge to put over the sentencing on the supervised release violation until after the underlying case was resolved.

Suggested Translations:
que da lugar a || que da base a || razón/motivo/causa de || que fundamenta || fundamental || causal 351

United States Sentencing Commission

NAMES OF ORGANIZATIONS 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: An independent commission in the judicial branch of the federal government responsible for setting and regulating guidelines for criminal sentencing in federal courts and for issuing policy statements about their application. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)       • The sentencing guidelines established by the United States Sentencing Commission are subject to periodic review.

Suggested Translations:
Comisión Federal para la Regulación de la Imposición/Individualización de Penas 352

unring the bell

 
Definitions & Examples:
• Sometimes it is hard to unring the bell once the jury has heard the inadmissible evidence.

Suggested Translations:
dar marcha atrás || deshacer lo hecho || lo dicho, dicho está 353

V

virtual certainty

LEGAL 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A phrase used in court to make defendants aware that their deportation is an almost certain consequence of their conviction.       • A criminal defendant who faces almost certain deportation is entitled to know more than that it is possible that a guilty plea could lead to removal; he is entitled to know that it is a virtual certainty. (http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2015/08/14/13-56415.pdf , accessed 08-27-2015)

Suggested Translations:
virtualmente/casi seguro || certeza implícita/tácita 354

voluntary departure

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: The departure of an alien from the United States without an order of removal. The departure may or may not have been preceded by a hearing before an immigration judge. An alien allowed to voluntarily depart concedes removability but does not have a bar to seeking admission at a port-of-entry at any time. Failure to depart within the time granted results in a fine and a ten-year bar to several forms of relief from deportation.(http://www.uscis.gov/tools/glossary/voluntary-departure, accessed 05-27-2015)       • The defendant decided not to fight his deportation during the removal proceeding and applied for voluntary departure .

Suggested Translations:
salida/partida voluntaria 355

vouch (for)

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: To answer for (another); to personally assure. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)      • I can vouch for my friend’s generosity.  2) Def.: To call on, rely on, or cite as authority; to substantiate with evidence. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)      • Counsel vouched the mathematical formula for determining the statistical probability. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)  3) Def.: (Of a lawyer before a jury) to comment favorably on the credibility of one or more witnesses based on the lawyer's personal knowledge. (Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. 2014)      • The prosecutor was admonished not to vouch for the honesty of his informant. Note: Sometimes known as bolstering.

Suggested Translations:
1) dar fe || respaldar 2) avalar/reafirmar/apoyar/garantizar la veracidad de lo dicho 3) respaldo (inadecuado) en cuanto a la credibilidad de los testigos de cargo. 356

W

wall stop

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Tactic used by a law enforcement agency to protect or “wall off” an investigation and cover the federal presence from the target’s knowledge by having a different law enforcement agency arrest the target without jeopardizing the larger investigation.       • The DEA, who knew of a car that was to deliver cocaine, asked local police to conduct a wall stop. The local police stopped the car due to a broken taillight. Therefore, the suspect believed that the seizure of the contraband from his/her vehicle was merely fortuitous. Note: Also called whisper stop.

Suggested Translations:
táctica para proteger o aislar una investigación extensa haciendo que otra agencia detenga a alguno de los sujetos de la investigación por cargos no relacionados || parada por motivos no relacionados para encubrir la investigación principal || parada o detención táctica 357

warrant of removal/deportation (Form I-205)

IMMIGRATION 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: A form that authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual who has been ordered removed from the country. The second page of this document is used to verify that an individual was removed.        • The custodian of records testified that there was an I-205 form, or warrant of removal, in the alien's A-file showing that the defendant had been ordered removed by an immigration judge.        • The warrant of removal verified that the defendant was removed afoot at the San Ysidro Port of Entry. Note: An order of removal may be issued by, among others, an immigration judge after determining that an individual is removable. Afterwards, a warrant of removal/deportation may be issued to instruct immigration services to carry out said order.

Suggested Translations:
comprobante de la orden y de la expulsión || comprobante de la orden para la detención y expulsión de un individuo y constancia de su expulsión         358

water under the bridge

IDIOM/PHRASE 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: ​Something in the past that cannot be controlled or undone, but must be accepted, forgiven or forgotten. (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/water_under_the_bridge)      • The conviction is so old that it's water under the bridge.

Suggested Translations:
lo hecho, hecho está || lo pasado, pasado está || borrón y cuenta nueva || eso ya pasó a la historia || a lo hecho, pecho || agua pasada (no mueve molino) || ya lo pasado, pasado 359

wherewithal

 
Definitions & Examples:
1) Def.: The necessary means (especially financial).      • The defendant lacks the wherewithal to pay a fine. 2) Def.: [D]escribes someone or something’s intelligence, ability, or togetherness. In other words, the personality trait that gets things done. (http://grammarist.com/words/wherewithal, accessed 02-06-2015)      • My client did not have the wherewithal to plan such a sophisticated operation. 3) Def.: Knowledge necessary to perform a task      • The defendant had a degree in chemistry and clearly had the wherewithal to run the meth lab.

Suggested Translations:
1) medios || recursos económico-financieros || [tener] con qué 2) capacidad || recursos personales || habilidad || facultad 3) conocimiento necesario 360

whisper stop

LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Tactic used by a law enforcement agency to protect or “wall off” an investigation and cover the federal presence from the target’s knowledge by having a different law enforcement agency arrest the target without jeopardizing the larger investigation.      • The DEA, who knew of a car that was to deliver cocaine, asked local police to conduct a wall stop. The local police stopped the car due to a broken taillight. Therefore, the suspect believed that the seizure of the contraband from his/her vehicle was merely fortuitous. Note: Also called wall stop.

Suggested Translations:
táctica para proteger o aislar una investigación extensa haciendo que otra agencia detenga a alguno de los sujetos de la investigación por cargos no relacionados || parada por motivos no relacionados para encubrir la investigación principal || parada o detención táctica 361

whit: not matter a ~

 
Definitions & Examples:
• The fact that the defendant had been unemployed when he robbed the bank didn’t seem to matter a whit when the judge sentenced him to the maximum term allowed by law.  

Suggested Translations:
no importar (ni) un comino || ser insignificante || valer un bledo/un verdadero cacahuate || no valer nada/ni una pizca/ni un ápice 362

whorl: fingerprint ~

FINGERPRINTS 
Definitions & Examples:
• The whorl pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and two points of delta. When the line of the fingerprint disc is placed on the two points of delta, it will bisect at least one of the ridges belonging to the core group. (http://www.santoshraut.com/forensic/fingerprinting.htm., accessed 3-30-2011) • A plain whorl is a pattern in which there are two deltas and in which at least one ridge makes a turn through one complete circuit. (Proceso T. Tubid, Manual in Basic Fingerprinting, 2008)

Suggested Translations:
espiral || verticilo 363

willful blindness

OFFENSES 
Definitions & Examples:
Def.: Deliberate avoidance of knowledge of a crime, esp. by failing to make a reasonable inquiry about suspected wrongdoing despite being aware that it is highly probable. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)      • Despite the fact that the defendant had no direct knowledge of the drugs hidden in his car, the jury found him guilty due to his willful blindness. Note: This concept is