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• According to Google Maps, the region marked in red is also an area where people take lots of photos when they go 4x4ing.
manejar/conducir/correr vehículos de doble tracción de manera recreacional || divertirse operando un 4x4 || correr vehículos todoterreno || andar en el 4x4
AUTOMOTIVE
 
  
Def.: Abbreviation that stands for “also known as.” Used to denote aliases or false names.
       • Oscar Perez, aka el Búho Tuerto, was detained at the border with a load of cocaine.
alias || apodo || sobrenombre
LEGAL
 
  
Peter’s usual place of abode is in Kansas, because that is where he currently lives or dwells.
 
(See also: domicile and residence)
domicilio habitual/fijo (de una persona)
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: To set free or judicially discharge from an accusation or suspicion of guilt; to clear a person from a criminal charge.
       • If you don’t find evidence beyond a reasonable doubt against her, you must acquit.
absolver || librar/exonerar de culpa al acusado
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: The legal certification, usually by jury verdict, that an accused person is not guilty of the charged offense. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed.)
exculpación || sentencia absolutoria || liberación de responsabilidad
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A criminal or civil  judicial proceeding brought on by one party against another.
       • The prosecutor has promised to file legal action against medical marihuana dispensaries.
demanda || litigio || proceso || caso || causa
LEGAL
 
  
My client is adamant about not coming back.
firme || categórico
       • mantenerse firme en lo dicho
       • insistir en lo dicho
       • porfiar en lo dicho
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Addition or supplement, especially to a document.
      • The U.S. Probation Department submitted an addendum to the pre-sentence report.
apéndice
LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: The legal process of resolving a dispute in a court proceeding.
       • Adjudication was delayed because of the late submission of essential documents by the defense.
2) Def.: The judgment or decree given.
       • The trial court’s adjudication was overturned by the court of appeals.
3) Def.: A court process that determines if juveniles committed the crimes with which they are charged.  In juvenile courts an adjudication is analogous to a conviction.
       • The defendant had no juvenile adjudications or criminal convictions when he appeared before the judge for his sentence.
1) determinación judicial
2) fallo || sentencia || resolución/pronunciamiento  judicial
3) fallo judicial que determina la responsabilidad del menor de los actos imputados.|| fallo de responsabilidad penal contra un menor || fallo que determina que el menor es responsable de los actos imputados
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Once the base offense level is determined under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, the sentencing judge arrives at the adjusted offense level after considering factors such as role in the commission of the crime, acceptance of responsibility, and assistance in the prosecution of others.
       • The adjusted offense level reflected a four level reduction because of the fast-track program.
nivel ajustado del delito
LEGAL
 
  
Def.:  The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts' budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States.  (http://www.uscourts.gov/common/glossary.aspx , accessed 05-08-2013)
       • The Administrative Office of the United States Courts keeps statistics regarding cases that use the services of an interpreter.
Oficina Administrativa de los Tribunales Federales Estadounidenses
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Capable of being legally admitted; allowable; permissible. May be considered by a jury or judge in civil and criminal cases. 
       • The defendant’s post-arrest statement was deemed admissible by the Court because it was relevant, not unfairly prejudicial and reliable.
admisible || digno de aceptarse/admitirse como prueba
LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: Acknowledge to be true or to be the case. Accept one’s responsibility for an action.
       • The defendant admitted several violations of the terms of his supervised release.
2) Def.: To permit into evidence.
       • The judge admitted the expert testimony as evidence.
1) aceptar || reconocer
2) aceptar || admitir
LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: A warning, caution.
       • The document contained an admonition not to commit a federal, state or local crime while under pretrial supervision.
2) Def.: A reprimand.
       • Counsel was upset by the judge’s admonition for him to refrain from asking leading questions.
3) Def.: Any authoritative instruction or cautionary statement from the Court to the jury regarding their duties.
       • The judge’s admonition to the jury included avoiding contact with all the parties in the case.
1) amonestación || advertencia || apercibimiento
2) reprensión || amonestación
3) amonestación
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A procedural system, such as the one used  in the U.S., involving parties contesting with each other to present a case before an impartial decision maker. This differs from the inquisitorial system based on the civil law tradition of many other countries, in which the judge takes a more active role in arriving at the truth.
       • Closing arguments in a jury trial are an illustration of the adversary system of justice because each party argues its own side.
sistema (judicial) contencioso || sistema acusatorio adversarial
LEGAL
 
  
Def.:  A written or printed statement made under oath.  (http://www.uscourts.gov/common/glossary.aspx , accessed 05-08-2013)
       • Based on the financial affidavit, the judge decided that the defendant qualifies for appointed counsel.
declaración juramentada/jurada por escrito || affidávit
LEGAL
 
  

1) Def.: When the court of appeals concludes that the lower court’s judgment is correct and will stand as rendered. 
       • The court of appeals affirmed the trial court’s ruling regarding the admissibility of the defendant’s post-arrest statement.

2) Def.: To solemnly declare rather than to swear under oath.
       • Do you solemnly swear or affirm to tell the truth?

1) confirmar || ratificar
2) prometer || afirmar solemnemente || protestar
LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: A mutual understanding between two or more legally competent persons.
       • The agreement between the parties that the witness qualified as an expert saved time.
2) Def.: A contract
       • Every contract is an agreement, but not every agreement is a contract. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th  ed. 2009)
1) acuerdo || convenio || pacto
2) convenio || acuerdo ||  contrato
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: To intentionally facilitate or assist another individual in the commission of a crime.
       • The defendant was accused of aiding and abetting in the transportation of illegal aliens.
auxiliar || cooperar ||
auxiliar e instigar
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A statement not yet proven.
       • The defendant admitted the allegation that he had failed to submit monthly reports to Probation while under supervised release.
imputación || acusación || atribución
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A defense attorney, in a trial, may claim trial by ambush when he or she has not received full pre-trial discovery and is, therefore, surprised by the late revelation of evidence.
       • I submit, Your Honor, that admitting testimony by this witness is tantamount to a trial by ambush.
juicio por emboscada
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A change in a document, including additions to it or deletions from it. (Federal Judicial Center Glossary)
       • The U.S. Attorney made an amendment to the complaint to cure the defect.
enmienda || modificación || reforma (a la legislación)
LEGAL
 
  
Def.:  The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts' budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States.  (http://www.uscourts.gov/common/glossary.aspx , accessed 05-08-2013)
       • The AO of the United States Courts keeps statistics regarding cases that use the services of an interpreter.
Oficina Administrativa de los Tribunales Federales Estadounidenses
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A request made by a party that a higher court review the lower court’s decision to determine if it was correct.
       •The appeal from his conviction failed, and he was sent back to prison.
(recurso de) apelación/alzada
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: The presentation of oneself in court as a party to or as an attorney for a party to an action.  An appearance may also be made in writing, orally or by some act which implies the intention of appearing and submitting to the jurisdiction of the court.
       • The defendant’s next appearance before the Court will be for sentencing.
comparecencia
LEGAL
 
  
• The arch pattern is made up of ridges lying one above the other in a general arching formation. (http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint_patterns.html , accessed 4-4-2011)
arco
EXPERT TESTMNY, FINGERPRINTS
 
  
• The ICE attaché in Mexico came to testify about the defendant’s alienage.
agregado de ICE/del Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas
COURT SPEAK
 
  
Def.: A supplementary or additional document that is attached to a primary document.
      • Counsel included three reference letters as an attachment to his sentencing memorandum.
anexo || adjunto
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Figuratively, to give a short explanation.
       • Counsel, be prepared to hum a few bars for me on minor role for a guy who is high when he's crossing the border in the pedestrian lane and has drugs on him.
explicar en pocas palabras
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• In the interest of time, counsel, please just give me the bare bones of your argument.
expresión mínima || lo rudimentario || lo esencial || lo básico
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: The level assigned to a crime under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. This level is the starting point for determining the seriousness of a particular offense.
       • The highest base offense level under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines is 43.
nivel base del delito
LEGAL
 
  
• We can be so concerned with one issue that we sacrifice something else and, hence, we throw the baby out with the bathwater.
• Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater, and therefore make things even worse.
echar/arrojar la soga tras el caldero
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• Our client was suffering from Battered Woman Syndrome and, after constant abuse by her partner, became depressed and unable to take steps to flee the abuse.
Síndrome de la mujer maltratada
LEGAL
 
  
The subject produced a Border Crossing Card allowing him limited entry into the United States.
tarjeta/documento de cruce fronterizo
IMMIGRATION
 
  
point where a friction ridge forks and becomes two separate ridges        
       • Bifurcations are among the most common types of ridge characteristics, or minutia, in fingerprint identification.
bifurcación
EXPERT TESTMNY, FINGERPRINTS
 
  
Def.: Cocaína
       • A ese drogo lo mató la blanca.
coke
DRUGS, SLANG
 
  
Def.: Bail bond.
1) Def.: Personal appearance bond.
       The judge set a personal appearance bond co-signed by two financially responsible adults.
2) Def.: Cash or corporate surety bond.
       He set a cash or corporate surety bond for the defendant.
3) Def.: Bond secured by real property.
        The Government requested the Court set bail at one hundred thousand dollars secured by real property.
bono caucional || caución/fianza
1) caución/fianza/bono caucional personal (de comparecencia)
       Fianza personal (de comparecencia) garantizada por dos adultos económicamente solventes.
2) fianza/caución en efectivo o por compañía afianzadora
3) bono caucional garantizado por bienes raíces/con prenda inmobiliaria
BOND/DETENTION, CRIM. PROCEDURE
 
  
This defendant had a 12:30 pm booking window, so he should be here tomorrow for his arraignment, your Honor.
 

periodo para el registro de ingreso || periodo para fichar/registrar (el ingreso del) al detenido

COURT SPEAK
 
  
Def.: A border crosser is a holder of a border crossing card (BCC), DSP-150, or B1/B2 visitor’s visa.
      • "Are you a border crosser?," asked the Probation officer.
 
portador de un permiso para cruce fronterizo
COURT SPEAK
 
  
• The subject produced a Border Crossing Card allowing him limited entry into the United States.
tarjeta/documento de cruce fronterizo
IMMIGRATION
 
  
• The bouncer didn't let me in the nightclub when he saw my ID.
sacaborrachos || gorila || cadenero || sacabullas || patovica || portero || el puerta
 
  
• The defendant is to wear an electronic ankle bracelet.
grillete electrónico (de tobillo/muñeca)
ALT/REHAB/DVRSN, PROB/PRETRIAL
 
  
• The defendant was picked up by the California Highway Patrol when they found brass knuckles in his back pocket during his pat down.
nudillos (de metal) || manopla de acero || puño americano/de acero || nudillera
 
  
•  “Your client doesn’t only bridle at the thought of being supervised, he outright bristles,” said the judge.
 
Note: (See also: bristle)
mostrar estar indignado/molesto
       • Su cliente no solo se indigna al enterarse que será supervisado, sino que hasta se enfurece/se retuerce del coraje. 
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
•  “Your client doesn’t only bridle at the thought of being supervised, he outright bristles,” said the judge.
 
Note: (See also: bridle)
enfurecerse || retorcerse del coraje
       • Su cliente no solo se indigna al enterarse que será supervisado, sino que hasta se enfurece/se retuerce del coraje.
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• My intention is not to throw my client’s co-defendant under the bus, but...
hacer ver/quedar mal a alguien || cargarle el muertito/muerto a alguien || usar de chivo expiatorio a alguien || traicionar || echar la culpa || endilgarle algo a alguien
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• The city will put in place a gun buyback program that will allow gun owners to exchange guns for gift cards.
programa de desarme voluntario/de canje de armas
LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK, WEAPONS
 
  
The Court sentenced him to two months’ custody at a work furlough facility operated by CAI.
compañía (de alternativas a la prisión) Correctional Alternatives, Inc.
ALT/REHAB/DVRSN, NAMES OF ORGANIZATIONS, PROB/PRETRIAL
 
  
Def.: According to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines §4B1.1, “[t]he defendant qualifies as a career offender if (1) the defendant was at least 18 years old at the time the defendant committed the instant offense of conviction; (2) the instant offense of conviction is a felony that is either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense; and (3) the defendant has at least two prior felony convictions of either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense."
       • If the defendant commits this crime again he will be treated as a career offender.
delincuente de carrera || delincuente que comete un tercer delito grave de drogas o violencia || delincuente que recibe tercera sentencia condenatoria por delito mayor que involucra violencia o narcotráfico || delincuente que puede considerarse como delincuente de carrera
LEGAL
 
  
I am my parents’ primary caretaker.
proveedor de atención al anciano/paciente || persona que atiende a
 
  
Counsel, you are putting the cart before the horse by arguing an issue that is not yet before the Court.
empezar la casa por el tejado || poner la carreta delante de los bueyes
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
1) • Once the damaging evidence is heard by the jury, the cat is out of the bag and no instruction can really make them disregard it.
2) • The cat was out of the bag when Susan spilled the beans and told Tony the secret inadvertently.
1) no hay marcha atrás
•        Una vez escuchadas las pruebas perjudiciales por el jurado el daño está hecho y no hay marcha atrás,...
2) soltar la sopa || regar el tepache
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: To affirm categorically is to absolutely, directly, expressly, positively, and flatly affirm.
      The attorney flatly denied the charges and said that reports of such activity are “absolutely, categorically false.”
categóricamente || de manera terminante/rotunda
 
  
I have a catering business. I mainly cater big weddings.
abastecer comida por encargo || encargarse del servicio de comida y bebida (para fiestas, eventos, etc.) || ofrecer servicios de banquetería
 
  
He was driving a catering truck to the construction site.
cafetería rodante || camión de comida || lonchera (border Spanish) || servicios rodantes de comida y bebida
 
  
• The defendant would rather do the 500-hour drug program than participate in CBT.
 
 
terapia cognitivo-conductual || terapia cognitiva del comportamiento
 
Nota: No es cognoscitivo
ALT/REHAB/DVRSN, DRUGS, PROB/PRETRIAL, PSYCH.
 
  
• The defendant made a false claim against the United States Navy regarding military pay.
solicitud fraudulenta de compensación || reclamación improcedente de pago
 
  
• Mr. Pérez made a false claim to United States citizenship at the port-of-entry.
afirmar ser ciudadano (sin serlo) || presentar afirmación improcedente de ciudadanía || aseverar/declarar/decir falsamente ser ciudadano
IMMIGRATION, OFFENSES
 
  
The judge chose to show clemency to the truly repentant defendant.
clemencia
SENTENCING
 
  
Def.: The act of applying pressure to sway someone from doing something against his or her will.
       • There is no room for coercion of any kind in a loving relationship.
 
Note: Coercion and duress are commonly used as synonyms but as legal terms they have differences. (See also: duress)
coerción   
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Anatomical parts of roosters. The comb is the fleshy flap or crest on top of their head. The wattle is the red fleshy tissue that dangles beneath the beak.
      • Roosters bred to fight are often “dubbed” by shaving off the comb and wattles. 
cresta y zarzo/barbas/barbillas
 
  
1) • The witness was compelled to appear but he was hostile.
2) • The plight of the children urged or compelled me to send a large donation.
1) compeler || forzar || obligar 2) instar || incitar || impeler
 
  
• The teenager’s story was compelling enough to cause the teacher not to punish him.
persuasivo || convincente || irresistible || imperioso || apremiante
LEGAL
 
  
• Sorry, dear, you broke it and you’ve got to pay for it. That’s the way the cookie crumbles.
asi es la vida || ni modo || no hay de otra
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• Are there any agreements outside of the four corners of this document?  
 
Note: As heard in court during a plea colloquy.
(dentro/fuera del) contenido de este documento
LEGAL
 
  
The Court sentenced him to two months’ custody at a work furlough facility operated by CAI.
compañía (de alternativas a la prisión) Correctional Alternatives, Inc.
 
  
• Because of the high volume of cases, the defendant’s psychological evaluation fell through the cracks, and now the hearing had to be rescheduled.
perder de vista || olvidar || pasar por alto/desapercibido
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• That was such a cryptic account of the incident that I was not able to exercise my meaningful sentencing decision.
críptico || enigmático
 
  
• “My default,” said the defense attorney, “is to be able to present arguments under the agreement. I apologize that I did not notice I was not allowed to.”
lo que se acostumbra hacer || lo que se hace automáticamente || lo que se suele hacer || 
       • Mi costumbre es...
 
  
• It is in the defendant’s best interest to have the Court defer the imposition of her sentence.
diferir || aplazar
CRIM. PROCEDURE
 
  
• The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program is meant to benefit those that may have otherwise sought relief under the DREAM Act.
Acción Diferida [para los llegados en la infancia/para quienes llegaron al país cuando eran niños]
IMMIGRATION
 
  
Def.: Postponed recordation of a judicial ruling.
       • The Southern District of California offers some low-level offenders a deferred entry of judgment program (diversion program) whereby a finding of guilt is made but not recorded in the expectation that the offender will comply with all of the program's requirements. Upon successful completion of the program, the Government will move to dismiss the charges.
 
Note: Compare with deferred prosecution, which involves an agreement between the Government and the offender that does not require a plea of guilty.

postergación/suspensión del asentamiento (en actas) de una resolución judicial

LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A period during which the Government delays prosecution of an offender so that he can fulfill certain conditions and not suffer a conviction.
       • Mr. Hernandez received deferred prosecution in his case because he did not have a criminal record and the amount of marijuana that he crossed with was very small.
 
Note: Compare with deferred entry of judgment, in which an offender must plead guilty in order to participate in the program.
procesamiento diferido/aplazado || ejercicio diferido/aplazado de la acción penal
ALT/REHAB/DVRSN, CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: To misrepresent, cheat or trick.
       • The three men conspired to defraud the US by filing false tax returns.
2) Def.: Cause injury or loss by deceit or fraud.
       • He tried to defraud the company of three million dollars.
 

1) estafar || timar || defraudar || engañar
2) cometer fraude || causar pérdida o daño mediante dolo, engaño o mala fe

LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: To appoint someone as a substitute, a representative or assistant with power to act.
       • The sheriff was deputized to ask INS-related questions to the arrestees.
comisionar || autorizar || delegar (facultades para hacer algo) || facultar || nombrar a alguien como sustituto o representante
LEGAL
 
  
• He detected an odor of narcotics or humans.
detectar
 
  
Def.: To prevent, inhibit or discourage by fear or doubt.
       • The US Sentencing Commission and the Department of Justice have concluded that mandatory sentencing fails to deter crime.
frenar (algo) || disuadir (a alguien de hacer algo)
SENTENCING
 
  
• Some statutory sentencing goals of the guideline sentences are: provide punishment levels that reflect the seriousness of the offense, afford adequate deterrence of criminal conduct, and protect the public from further crimes by the defendant.
disuasión || freno || elementos de disuasión   
SENTENCING
 
  
1) Def.: A means of preventing or discouraging something in general.
       • This sentence is expected to serve as a deterrent to others in the community.
2) Def.: A means of preventing further misconduct by an individual being sentenced.
       • The 36-month sentence is expected to serve as a deterrent to the defendant.
1) factor disuasivo || medida preventiva || prevención (p. ej.: de la reincidencia)
      • Se espera que esta pena sirva para prevenir la reincidencia.
2) para disuadir (a alguien) || como escarmiento || como freno
      • Se espera que la pena de 36 meses le sirva de/como escarmiento al acusado.
SENTENCING
 
  
• Although the DREAM Act has not yet become law, many alien minors may be considered for temporary relief under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals initiative.
proyecto de ley DREAM (Ley de fomento para el progreso, alivio y educación para menores extranjeros)
IMMIGRATION
 
  
• You have been diligent.
 
Note: Assiduous and asiduo do not mean the same as to diligence, although they do as to perseverante (in time). On the one hand, assiduous is synonymous with attentive, devoted, or unremitting, persistent (as to labor); on the other, asiduo is synonymous with frecuente, puntual, or perseverante.
asiduo || diligente || persistente || entregado || dispuesto || preparado || hacer algo con esmero || concienzudo
 
  
• My sister is a sweetheart but she’s a dingbat.
(tener/ser una) cabeza de chorlito || chiflado || pendejo || tonto || lelo || faltarle (a alguien) un tornillo
SLANG
 
  
Def.: The use of weapons to disable a vessel without risk to its occupants. This fire is often aimed at the steering or propulsion system of the vessel.
       • The Coast Guard commander ordered the use of disabling fire after three warning shots were discharged.
disparos para inutilizar/incapacitar
inhabilitar
MARITIME
 
  
• The police notes were not included in the discovery, your Honor.
averiguaciones sobre las pruebas relevantes en un litigio || revelaciones de la investigación pertinente/concerniente al pleito || hallazgos relevantes de la investigación || pruebas ofrecidas/divulgadas/reveladas || divulgación de pruebas
CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL, MOTIONS
 
  
Def.: 1) Disclosure by a party to an action, at the other party’s instance, of facts or documents relevant to the lawsuit.
(Garner, B., Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd edition)
       •  Rule 16 defines what information is subject to disclosure in the discovery process.
Def.: 2) The facts or documents disclosed.
       • The defendant asked his counsel for the discovery in his case.

1) revelación de pruebas procedentes/pertinentes a solicitud de la contraparte

2) pruebas sujetas a revelarse solicitadas por la contraparte

CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL, MOTIONS
 
  
• The defense filed a discovery motion to toll the Speedy Trial Act.
petición/pedimento/solicitud/promoción (México) para la divulgación/revelación/descubrimiento (Colombia) de pruebas (en posesión de la contraparte)
CRIM. PROCEDURE
 
  
Def.: A deciding factor; a fact or factor bringing about a final determination        
       • Nothing dispositive is going to happen today.
determinante || concluyente || dispositivo || decisivo || determinante para la resolución || resolutivo || resolutorio
LEGAL
 
  
• The district court had the power to make a dispositive decision on AAA's bankruptcy petition.
fallo resolutorio/decisivo/determinante
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Facts that clearly settle an issue.
       • The facts that the defendant jumped the red light and that he hit the victim's car are dispositive facts because they settle the question of the defendant's guilt.
hechos con valor determinante || hechos esenciales/cruciales/claves || hechos que resuelven (el caso) || pruebas concluyentes
LEGAL
 
  
• The motion is neither dispositive nor non-dispositive.
petición concluyente/determinante || petición que promueve la resolución
LEGAL, MOTIONS
 
  
1) Def.: causing problems
2) Def.: upsetting
3) Def.: interfering        
       • The defendant was disruptive during the proceeding.
1) causar desorden/trastorno
2) perturbar/alterar
3) interrumpir/obstruir
 
  
Def.: A judge appointed for life by the U.S. Senate to serve in a federal judicial district.
       • You have the right to enter your plea before the district court judge assigned to your case.
 
Note: Compare with magistrate judge.
juez de tribunal federal de primera instancia || juez (federal) de distrito
LEGAL
 
  
• They immediately called the dog handler to secondary (inspection).
guía de canes/de perros policiales || manejador
DRUGS
 
  
• ICE works with state and local entities to intercept bulk cash being transported along domestic interstate highways.
red nacional de vías/carreteras interestatales
 
  
Def.: A place or locality where someone lives with the intent to make it a fixed and permanent home.
       • Make sure you serve him with the divorce papers at his true domicile.
 
(See also: residence and abode: usual place of ~)
domicilio
LEGAL
 
  
• The dog handler was asked, "Did you and the detector dog perform double-blind studies or tests where neither you nor the dog knew where the contraband was?"
doble ciego || doble-ciego || a ciegas doble || doblemente a ciegas || doble enmascaramiento || enmascaramiento doble (ciego)
EXPERT TESTMNY, MEDICAL
 
  
• There was a downturn in downtown business when people started moving to the suburbs.
bajón || caída || desaceleración || contracción || acción de empeorar
 
  
• Although the DREAM Act has not yet become law, many alien minors may be considered for temporary relief under Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.
Proyecto de ley DREAM (Ley de fomento para el progreso, alivio y educación para menores extranjeros)
IMMIGRATION
 
  
• DREAMers are young immigrants that would qualify for the DREAM Act if it were law.
posible beneficiario del proyecto de ley DREAM || jóvenes “soñadores” || jóvenes DREAMers
IMMIGRATION
 
  
• We want to drive home that he does not have a right to cross into the U.S.
recalcar || hacer hincapié || hacer entender
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• What is driving this sentence in this case is his prior aggravated assault conviction.
impulsar || determinar || motivar || guiar || responder a || ser resultado de
SENTENCING
 
  
• Let’s buy the food by going through the drive-thru.
ventanilla de auto servicio || servicarro (de restaurante) || ventanilla (de servicio de comida) a carros
 
  
• The U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency is using Predator drones to monitor and protect the border as part of its war on drugs.
avión teledirigido || vehículo aéreo no tripulado || aviones piloteados/pilotados remotamente
EXPERT TESTMNY
 
  
• Pulling apart the truck's undercarriage, the agents found a non-factory compartment — but no drugs inside. "This vehicle has been used to smuggle dope into the country, but this trip was only a dry run," said the inspector."
simulacro || ensayo || ejercicio de simulación || un cruce de práctica
LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK
 
  
1) Def.: (said of a pleading, esp. an indictment) alleging two or more matters in one plea; characterized by double pleading.
       • "A duplicitous indictment is one that charges separate offenses in a single count. The overall vice of duplicity is that the jury cannot in a general verdict render its finding on each offense, making it difficult to determine whether a conviction rests on only one of the offenses or on both. Adverse effects on a defendant may include . . . the danger that a conviction will result from a less than unanimous verdict as to each separate offense." (U.S. v. Adesida)
2) Def.: (said of a person) deceitful; double-dealing
 
Note: (See also: duplicity)
1) duplicativo
2) falso || (que obra) con dobleces || engañoso
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: (said of a pleading, esp. an indictment) the fact of alleging two or more matters in one plea; being characterized by double pleading.
       • "A duplicitous indictment is one that charges separate offenses in a single count. The overall vice of duplicity is that the jury cannot in a general verdict render its finding on each offense, making it difficult to determine whether a conviction rests on only one of the offenses or on both. Adverse effects on a defendant may include . . . the danger that a conviction will result from a less than unanimous verdict as to each separate offense." (U.S. v. Adesida)
 
Note: (See also: duplicitous)
duplicidad en el cargo/en el documento acusatorio || duplicidad dentro del cargo || duplicidad (de actos delictuosos) en el mismo cargo || acumulación (indebida) de actos (ilícitos) en el mismo cargo
LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: A threat of harm made to compel a person to do something against his or her will or judgment
       • A marriage that is induced by duress is generally voidable. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)
2) Def.: The use or threatened use of unlawful force — usu. that a reasonable person cannot resist — to compel someone to commit an unlawful act.
       • Duress is a recognized defense to a crime, contractual breach, or tort. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)
 
Note: Coercion and duress are commonly used as synonyms, but as legal terms they have differences. (See also: coercion)
1) presión || coacción
2) coacción  
LEGAL
 
  
• to dust for fingerprints
empolvar
EXPERT TESTMNY, FINGERPRINTS
 
  
• Leaving illegal aliens locked in a compartment constitutes egregious behavior.
(conducta) atroz/despreciable || atrocidad
SENTENCING
 
  
• Would you please elaborate further, counsel?
dar más detalles || ampliar sobre el tema || explicar con lujo de detalles
 
  
• An embolism is the obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot blocking the vessel.
embolia || obstrucción de un vaso sanguíneo.
MEDICAL
 
  
• A fight ensued after the police left the premises.
surgir || resultar || comenzar || sobrevenir || darse
 
  
Def.: Postponed recordation of a judicial ruling.
       • The Southern District of California offers some low-level offenders a deferred entry of judgment program (diversion program) whereby a finding of guilt is made but not recorded in the expectation that the offender will comply with all of the program's requirements. Upon successful completion of the program, the Government will move to dismiss the charges.
 
Note: Compare with deferred prosecution, which involves an agreement between the Government and the offender that does not require a plea of guilty.
postergación/suspensión del asentamiento (en actas) de una resolución judicial
LEGAL, PROB/PRETRIAL
 
  
Seeing the effect that meth had on his brother, he experienced an epiphany that made him realize the seriousness of his own drug use.
revelación
 
  
• We need to consider all of the equities he brings to the table.
• Your Honor, we ask you to impose a sentence bearing in mind the equities in favor of the defendant such as his long work history and his life of poverty.
aspectos positivos || bondades || puntos favorables/a favor (que ameritan equidad/justicia)
BOND/DETENTION, SENTENCING
 
  
1) Def.: The value of a property, or of an interest in a property, in excess of liens or claims against it.
        • How much equity does the surety have in his home?
2) Def.: Something that is fair and just.
        • Solomon’s sense of equity is well known.
valor líquido || plusvalía || valor descontando gravámenes || valor neto
BOND/DETENTION
 
  
• He’s the office gofer or errand boy.
mandadero || trabajador “V” || ejecutivo “V” || el de los mandados
 
  
You have seen your offense levels/sentences escalate from guideline level 8 to 32 in only a few years.
aumentar || agravar || intensificar || empeorar
SENTENCING
 
  
Progressive escalation of sentences.
aumento || agravamiento || intensificación || empeoramiento
SENTENCING
 
  
Def: Not compute as part of the fixed term (i.e., delaying the statutory deadline for trial).
        • Time will be excluded; judgment and sentencing is set for April 3rd, at 9 am.
descontar cierto tiempo (del plazo dispuesto por la Ley de Juicio sin Demora) || descontar del plazo legal el tiempo intermedio || excluir del cálculo del plazo de días dispuesto por ley || permitir una demora en un proceso
LEGAL
 
  
• He will forever live in exile from this, his second country.
destierro || exilio
 
  
• Expert witnesses many times testify as to a hypothetical scenario.
testigo pericial
EXPERT TESTMNY, LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Immediately obvious, at first sight, with no need to analyze the situation.
       • The Probation Officer found evidence that, on its face, was sufficient to revoke the offender’s supervised release.
a primera vista || a juzgar por las apariencias || aparentemente
 
  
• The defendant is charged with facilitating the entry of illegal aliens.
facilitar
 
  
• I was only given the bare facts to consider.
hechos concretos || hechos puros y duros || simplemente los hechos
        
 
  
failure or insufficiency        
       • The workshop focused on heart, kidney and respiratory failure cases.  
 
Note: Heart failure is not the same as heart arrest or heart attack. (See also: heart arrest, heart attack.)
insuficiencia        
       • El taller se centró en casos de insuficiencia cardiaca, renal y respiratoria.
MEDICAL
 
  
• Among his priors there were three failures to appear.
falta de comparecer || incomparecencia
LEGAL
 
  
• “Did you and your wife have a falling out?” asked the Probation Officer.
problema || conflicto || riña || desacuerdo || desavenencia || discordia
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• Junk food sold at fast-food restaurants is being blamed for today’s obesity levels.  
 
Note: When used as an adjective, fast-food is hyphenated.
comida de servicio rápido || comida chatarra
 
  
• “Your Honor, this is a fast-track case that fell off the tracks, but it’s now back on track,” explained the attorney when requesting that his case be continued.  
 
Note: (See also: fall off the tracks under tracks, and get back on track under track)
caso (como un tren encarrilado) por la vía (de resolución) rápida || causa (encarrilada) en vías de (una) resolución rápida || un caso de resolución exprés/expresa/rápida || caso de tramitación agilizada/de proceso abreviado/en agilización procesal
       • Este caso es como un tren que se descarriló de la vía de resolución rápida y se volvió a encarrilar.
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: An early disposition program, authorized by the sentencing guidelines, in which the United States Attorney recommends a sentencing reduction for defendants willing to resolve their cases expeditiously.
       • Section 5K3.1 allows downward departures of up to 4 levels from the sentencing guideline range, pursuant to an early/expedited-disposition program, also known as fast-track disposition program.
programa de procesamiento rápido/de agilización procesal/de resolución rápida/de tramitación agilizada || programa de proceso abreviado/ de agilización procesal || programa de resolución exprés/expresa/rápida
COURT SPEAK, LEGAL, SENTENCING
 
  
• A fatal mistake is committed when an attorney fails to object in a timely manner.
error irremediable
 
  
1) • He was one of three fellows researching the genetic makeup of murderers.
2) • He is a reputed fellow of the School of Medicine, and has been so for 20 years.
1) becario/investigador posdoctoral || becario de investigación
2) miembro del cuerpo docente/de la junta rectora de una universidad
 
  
• He did a fellowship in forensic psychiatry.
estudios como becario posdoctoral ||  (participación en una) investigación/programa posdoctoral con beca || estudios de posgrado con beca || estudios de especialización (en medicina)
 
  
• Counsel, motions need to be filed no later than August 3rd.
interponer/elevar/cursar/entablar/presentar (una petición/pedimento/recurso)
LEGAL
 
  
• Counsel, that is beyond the scope: this hearing is not a fishing expedition.
meter/tirar hebra/hilo/cordón/pita para sacar listón || tantear el terreno || tirar un anzuelo || picar para ver qué saca || dar cuerda para ver qué saca        
       • No estamos aquí para ver qué saca.
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• Your draft of the jury instructions will fit the bill.
reunir los requisitos || dar la medida/la talla/el ancho || estar a la medida || encuadrar || encajar
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• As the patrol vehicle approached the suspected load car it flashed its lights twice.
echarle las luces (a alguien) || prender y apagar las luces
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• I can’t believe it! I recently bought my first flatbed truck and already people keep asking me to help them move things.
camión (con semirremolque) de plataforma
AUTOMOTIVE
 
  
to elaborate, to make more complete
       • Let me flesh out for you, the Jury, our theory of defense.
explicar || dar más detalles || definir || precisar
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• The bed of the truck was flimsy when the officer walked on it.
endeble || frágil
 
  
Def.: "[T]ype of prosecution [...] where a defendant is charged with a felony and misdemeanor. If the defendant rejects the plea offer, he is prosecuted for the felony. If the defendant pleads guilty to the misdemeanor, the felony is dismissed, and the magistrate judge sentences the defendant without a presentence report."
       • In the flip-flop case, the defendant pled guilty to a misdemeanor illegal entry charge, and the prosecutor dismissed the felony illegal reentry charge.
 
Note: Also known in the District of Arizona as mixed complaints.
denuncia/imputación/acusación compuesta (por un delito mayor y un delito menor, con la posibilidad de que se retire/deseche el delito mayor si el acusado se reconoce culpable del delito menor) || denuncia mixta || combinación de cargos
COURT SPEAK, LEGAL
 
  
type of ears
       • The drug detector dog was not a floppy-eared dog.
de orejas colgantes/pendulosas/caídas/pendientes
 
  
1) to drive out (e.g., of a hiding place)
       • The dogs flushed out the thief from under the brush and drove him out into the open.
2) to reveal something that is concealed.; to cause something to become obvious
       • The prosecutor was intent on flushing out the truth about what led to the real estate meltdown.
3) to purge or cleanse
       • That diet  helps flush out toxins.
1) hacer salir || sacar
2) revelar
        • revelar la verdad
3) limpiar || purgar || revelar
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• As a result of your conviction, you will become ineligible to receive certain benefits like food stamps.
vales alimenticios/de despensa || cupones/estampillas de comida/alimentos
SENTENCING
 
  
• I’ll give you a break on your sentence, but remember: “Fool me once, shame on you; fool me twice, shame on me.”
no me ves la cara dos veces || si me ves la cara una vez, la culpa es tuya; si me la ves otra vez, es mía || la mula no es arisca, sino (que) la hicieron || no me la haces dos veces
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
a judicial proceeding meant to take back real property because of non-payment of a loan
       The HUD (Housing and Urban Development) counselor explained to us that you don’t need to pay fees for foreclosure prevention help. The money can be used to pay the mortgage instead.
       When a property owner is no longer able to make their mortgage payment and defaults on the loan, the property goes through a process known as foreclosure. The lender initiates the sale of the property by auction through a third party called a trustee. (http://www.miloanderson.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Buying-Foreclosed.pdf , accessed 4-5-2011)
       To foreclose under [the] procedure [known as judicial foreclosure], the lender has to file a lawsuit so as to obtain a court order to foreclose. [A] non-judicial foreclosure is also called  foreclosure by power of sale. It is based on a deed of trust, which typically contains a “power of sale clause.  In the event of a default by the borrower,  this clause pre-authorizes the lender to sell off the property to pay off the home loan balance.  It enables the trustee (your lender or lender’s representative) to initiate the foreclosure process and sell the repo[ssessed] home without having to get a court’s approval. (http://www.helium.com/items/610918-what-is-the-difference-between-judicial-and-non-judicial-foreclosure , accessed 4-5-2011)
 
Note: Information found in Spanish about this concept reads as follows: Proceso de ejecución de hipoteca por el impago de la deuda que la hipoteca garantiza, el cual culmina con la venta del bien hipotecado, ordinariamente en venta judicial. Es, pues, un tipo de recuperación judicial (repossession), pero hipotecaria.
 
embargo/juicio hipotecario || pérdida hipotecaria || ejecución de hipoteca (o parte de un banco) || privación (que sufre el deudor hipotecario) del bien hipotecado  
BOND/DETENTION
 
  
• "No harm, no foul," said the judge as he denied the suppression motion because the complaining party had not suffered any prejudice by the untimely delivery of discovery.
no pasó a mayores || si no ocasiona daño, no hay problema/sanción ||no hubo daños, no hay repercusiones || no hay pena si no hay delito || no hay pena sin injuria/daño || sin daño ni perjuicio no hay falta || aquí no ha pasado nada
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• Last time you appeared before me you got a freebie: I did not revoke your supervised release. This time, because you did not comply, you will not get off so easily.
darle la viada a alguien || darle un regalo a alguien || pasársela a alguien || correr con suerte
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• She has placed front and center in front of the jury that this defendant can’t even understand simple orders.
poner en primera plana/en primer plano || enfatizar || destacar
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• The negotiating Assistant  US Attorney already front-loaded all those equities in the offer, Your honor.
incluir de antemano || considerar anticipadamente
 
  
• Among his priors there were three FTA’s.
falta de comparecer || incomparecencia
LEGAL
 
  
• Are they your full siblings?
hermanos de madre y padre
 
  
Def.: Recessed area between friction or papillary ridges.
      Because of the defendant’s very fine ridge detail, he was asked to hold ice in his hands before his fingerprints were taken so that the ridges and furrows would not be completely covered in the ink.
surco
EXPERT TESTMNY, FINGERPRINTS
 
  
Def.: Chronic enlargement of the thyroid.
       • Iodine is so scarce in my country that most people have goiter.
bocio
MEDICAL
 
  
Def.: Legally sufficient reason to take a certain action.
       • We’ll have a hearing to determine if there is good cause to revoke your supervised release.
motivos justificados
LEGAL
 
  
       • If a grand jury decides that there is sufficient evidence, it will issue a true bill of indictment.
jurado indagatorio/investigador (y acusatorio) || jurado de acusación || gran jurado indagatorio
LEGAL
 
  
• He worked the graveyard shift from 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.
turno nocturno/de media noche
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• The attorney was describing how his client groped his stepdaughter.
manosear || toquetear
 
  
• Mr. Jenkins is a habitual drunk driving offender.
delincuente habitual/reincidente
LEGAL
 
  
• The defendant was sentenced to serve 3 years in custody followed by 6 months in a halfway house.
casa de semilibertad/de media libertad/de transición || casa/centro de fase intermedia || centro transicional/de reinserción
ALT/REHAB/DVRSN, PROB/PRETRIAL, SENTENCING
 
  
• Let us support rather than hamstring the efforts of our negotiators.
• Mr. X, your position has left me hamstrung (as to what to do next).
• I am being hamstrung with your position.
incapacitar || paralizar || impedir || inhabilitar || frustrar (esfuerzos)
       • Apoyemos los esfuerzos de nuestros negociadores en vez de frustrarlos.
       • Sr. Fulano, su postura me ata las manos (respecto a lo que pueda hacerse a continuación).
       • Su postura me deja sin alternativa. 
 
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• He has worked as a handyman all his life.
el mil usos || ser (alguien) un manitas || trabajador de mantenimiento
 
  
• The psychologist asked, “Do you feel helpless, hopeless and hapless?”  
 
Note: (See also: helpless and hopeless)
infortunado
PSYCH.
 
  
• "No harm, no foul," said the judge as he denied the suppression motion because the complaining party had not suffered any prejudice by the untimely delivery of discovery. 
 
no pasó a mayores || si no ocasiona daño, no hay problema/sanción ||no hubo daños, no hay repercusiones || no hay pena si no hay delito || no hay pena sin injuria/daño || sin daño ni perjuicio no hay falta || aquí no ha pasado nada
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: Commission of an offense where the person acted, at least in part, with ill will, hatred or bias toward, and with a purpose to intimidate, an individual or group because of race, color, religion, sexual orientation or ethnicity.(Barron’s Law Dictionary, 5th ed. 2003)
       • The anti-Semitic graffiti was considered a hate crime.
delito motivado por el odio / por prejuicios 
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Speech that carries no meaning other than the expression of hatred for some group such as a particular race, esp. in circumstances in which the communication is likely to provoke violence. (Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)
        • Racial or homophobic slurs are instances of hate speech that could be argued to be an aggravating circumstance for sentencing purposes.
expresiones de odio || comentario(s) motivado(s) por prejuicios
LEGAL
 
  
• His eyes were hazel.
color avellana || café claro verdoso
 
  
• The defense attorney’s argument was a red herring: it had nothing to do with the Government’s contentions.
elemento/ardid/pretexto para despistar o distraer || pista falsa
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: Figuratively, to give a short explanation.
       • Counsel, be prepared to hum a few bars for me on minor role for a guy who is high when he's crossing the border in the pedestrian lane and has drugs on him.
explicar en pocas palabras
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• ICE is a federal law enforcement agency under DHS.
Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas
COURT SPEAK
 
  
• The ICE attaché in Mexico came to testify about the defendant’s alienage.
agregado de ICE/del Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas
IMMIGRATION
 
  
• Immigration and Customs Enforcement is a federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Homeland Security.
Servicio de Inmigración y Control de Aduanas
IMMIGRATION
 
  
Def.: A pretrial request that certain inadmissible evidence not be referred to or offered at trial (Black’s Law Dictionary, 2009).
peticiones previas al juicio || pedimentos/recursos antes de comenzar el juicio || peticiones in limine
CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL
 
  
• I can explain further in a sidebar if the Court would indulge further commentary.
permitir
 
  
• Do you knowingly and intelligently waive your right to a jury trial?
con conocimiento || con el uso de la razón || con entendimiento || con inteligencia
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: a joint venture is an illicit act committed by two or more people who agree to do it because the opportunity presents itself, without previous planning        
       • The Government will try to win a conviction using a joint venture theory to prove its case.
base jurídica o marco jurídico de una operación en conjunto/en común || base jurídica de una operación/empresa conjunta || teoría (legal) de empresa conjunta || teoría de esfuerzos en conjunto
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: For a judge to accept a fact as proved without hearing evidence.
       • “I will take judicial notice that January 3, 2001 was a Wednesday,” said the judge.
 
reconocer/aceptar/tomar el juez algo como un hecho sin exigir prueba || dar fe el juez de algo como un hecho sin que medie prueba || dar por admitido (algo que no es necesario comprobar)
LEGAL
 
  
• He just keeps coming back, getting juiced up and driving.
pistear || tomar tragos || embriagarse || encuetarse 
IDIOM/PHRASE, SLANG
 
  
Def.: catchy name given to a law enforcement tactic used to achieve entry into premises without having a warrant or without having probable cause for a search warrant. The officers knock at the door and ask to be let in. They inform the occupant, once inside, of their suspicions and ask for consent to search.
        • "We were able to search the house after the knock and talk," testified the officer.
táctica de tocar a la puerta para hablar
EXPERT TESTMNY, LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK
 
  
Def.: Part of a task that requires greater effort. 
       • The judge thanked Federal Defenders for taking the laboring oar in this multi-defendant case.
el grueso de una labor || parte más difícil de una tarea/faena
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• Don’t set bail on this case, he went on the lam last time.
pelarse || darse a la fuga || huir || ausentarse || estar prófugo
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• Due to the heinousness of the crime, his request for leniency fell on deaf ears.
clemencia || indulgencia || lenidad || falta de severidad || benevolencia
SENTENCING
 
  
• Being in jail has been tough, but it has helped me to stop doing drugs. I guess every cloud does have a silver lining.
no hay mal que por bien no venga || resquicio de esperanza
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• The loop pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and one delta. (http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint_patterns.html , accessed 4-4-2011)
• In order to distinguish between ulnar and radial loops you must: 1) know from which hand the loop pattern comes from and; 2) place your hand palm side down over the top of the impression and determine if the recurving ridges originate from the little finger side or the thumb side. If the ridges flow in from the little finger side this would be an 'ulnar' loop.  If the ridges flow in from the thumb side this would be a 'radial' loop.
bucle || lazo
EXPERT TESTMNY, FINGERPRINTS
 
  
Def.: A judge appointed for an eight-year term by the U.S. district judges in a federal court to assist them. Magistrate judges handle matters assigned by statute as well as other duties delegated by the district judges.
       • The defendant consented to have his plea of guilty taken by a U.S. magistrate judge instead of by the assigned U.S. district court judge, who will adjudicate guilt and impose sentence at a later date.
 
Note: Compare with U.S. district court judge.
juez auxiliar
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: The CBP oversees the Air and Marine Operations Center in their efforts to protect the nation’s borders.
       • Customs and Border Protection Air and Marine agents interdicted a vessel transporting 40 illegal aliens from Croatia.
oficial de operaciones marítimas
MARITIME
 
  
Def.: It is an unpublished decision or disposition.        
       • The arguments in court dealt with whether the decision was a published decision by the 9th Circuit of Appeals or a mem. dispo.
resolución no publicada || resolución por memorandum || resolución que no sienta precedente
COURT SPEAK, LEGAL
 
  
Def.: It is an unpublished decision or disposition.        
       • The arguments in court dealt with whether the decision was a published decision by the 9th Circuit of Appeals or a mem dispo.
resolución no publicada || resolución por memorandum || resolución que no sienta precedente
LEGAL
 
  
• Counsel filed a Memorandum of Points and Authorities in opposition to the Government’s motion.
escrito/memorándum de argumentos jurídicos y antecedentes/precedentes/jurisprudencia
LEGAL
 
  
• Mrs. Wu, the defendant’s mother, asked the Court to please have mercy on her son.
misericordia || clemencia || piedad
SENTENCING
 
  
• So what are you saying? That someone slipped you a mickey and therefore you were not aware of what you were doing when you broke the law?
ponerle/echarle algo en la bebida a alguien (para drogarlo)
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, defendants can be awarded a minimal role adjustment if they are found to be among the least culpable of the participants in an offense.
       • A defendant who qualifies for a minimal role adjustment is one who lacked knowledge or understanding of the scope and structure of a criminal enterprise and of the activities of others.
papel/función/rol de mínima culpabilidad/importancia/participación
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: The Federal Sentencing Guidelines allow for a defendant to receive a minor role adjustment if she/he is less culpable than most other participants in the offense conduct.
       You can get minor role and obtain two levels off,” said the attorney to his client.
 
Note: The phrase minor role is often used elliptically to mean “minor role adjustment.” (See also minimal role which is distinct from minor role.)
papel/función/rol de menor culpabilidad/ importancia/participación
LEGAL
 
  
• Electronic monitors are a good supervisory tool.
monitor electrónico
ALT/REHAB/DVRSN, PROB/PRETRIAL
 
  
• The motion for discovery is frequently used to toll the speedy trial clock.
petición/pedimento/recurso para que se entreguen las pruebas pertinentes/procedentes (a la contraparte).
CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL
 
  
• The government requested the expert witness’s curriculum vitae as part of its motion for reciprocal discovery.
petición/pedimento para la
revelación/divulgación recíproca de pruebas procedentes || petición para el intercambio de pruebas pertinentes/procedentes
CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Date set by the magistrate judge for defendant’s initial appearance before the district court judge.
       • We’ll set your motion hearing/trial setting date for June.
Fecha para agendar juicio y pedimentos
LEGAL
 
  
• The defense filed motions to compel discovery which tolled the Speedy Trial Act.
petición/pedimento para compeler el descubrimiento de pruebas en poder de la contraparte || solicitud/promoción (México) para compeler/obligar la revelación/divulgación de pruebas
CRIM. PROCEDURE
 
  
• Defense counsel filed a motion to compel discovery, expecting to receive exonerating materials.
petición/pedimento/recurso para forzar/compeler/obligar (a la contraparte) a que entregue las pruebas pertinentes/procedentes.
CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A pretrial request that certain inadmissible evidence not be referred to or offered at trial (Black’s Law Dictionary, 2009).
peticiones previas al juicio || pedimentos/recursos antes de comenzar el juicio || peticiones in limine
CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL
 
  
• I included that in my moving papers.
pliegos petitorios
MOTIONS
 
  
1) • My passport’s mug shot makes me look 10 years older.
2) • Elvis’s mug shot was taken on a visit to FBI headquarters.
1) fotografía de la cara
2) foto de archivo policial || foto que se toma al fichar (al detenido) || foto de ficha
 
  
• “We are at the bottom of the ninth,” said the judge to the defendant whose case was set to go to trial the following day.
ser el momento de la verdad || ser ahora o nunca || estar a la segunda (mitad) del noveno || acabarse el tiempo || ser la última oportunidad para cambiar el resultado
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: No good, bum, slacker, loser.
• The judge referred to the defendant as a no-goodnik after his fourth failure to appear.
bueno para nada || vago || inútil
 
  
1) • I note that I have not received the financial affidavit.
2) • The objection will be noted for the record.
1) notar || percatarse  
2) hacer constar || asentar || dejar asentado
LEGAL
 
  
• The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) sent a Notice to Appear to the alien ordering her to appear for an immigration proceeding. The notice also advised her of the consequences of failing to appear.
citación de comparecencia || notificación/aviso a comparecer || cédula citatoria/de citación
LEGAL
 
  
• In order to preserve the issue of admissibility for appeal, it is in counsel’s best interest to make an offer of proof (outside of the presence of the jury) with regard to any excluded evidence.
 
Note: (See also: proffer)
propuesta de prueba/elementos probatorios || ofrecer/proponer (pruebas, elementos de comprobación) a modo de adelanto/preámbulo
LEGAL
 
  
• The defendant’s case is on all fours with the Ninth Circuit’s latest decision on that matter.
ser/presentar una analogía exacta || concordar perfectamente || ser casi idéntico a
COURT SPEAK
 
  
Def.: Written legal argument against a previously filed motion.
       • Your opposition briefs were to be filed at least 7 calendar days before today, the hearing date.

argumentos escritos de oposición/de la contraparte

LEGAL
 
  
• The officer performed a pat down search of the defendant.
• Before being admitted to the courtroom, the public was submitted to a pat down in search of contraband and/or weapons.
cacheo || cateo físico || registro (de una persona) || registro a palmaditas
LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK
 
  
• Different factors can come into play such as peer pressure, situational pressure and family pressure.
presión de los pares || presión social/de grupo
 
  

• The pen register device collected several outgoing calls to a coconspirator in the case.

Note: (See also:  Pen Register and Trap and Trace Devices Act)

aparato de registro de comunicaciones (electrónicas) salientes || aparato para el registro de llamadas salientes
LEGAL
 
  
• The Pen Register and Trap and Trace Devices Act
prohibits the installation or use of a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order. It originally referred to telephonic communications. Now it includes other communication media such as cellular phone calls, e-mail communications and Internet connected phones that are trackable.
Ley sobre el Registro de Comunicaciones por Teléfono o Internet || Ley que Reglamenta el Uso de los Aparatos de Registro, Captura y Rastreo de Comunicaciones (Electrónicas) Entrantes y Salientes || Ley Pen/Trap
LEGAL
 
  
• The Pen/Trap Act prohibits the installation or use of a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order. It was revised to regulate how both wire and electronic communications are monitored.
Ley sobre el Registro de Comunicaciones por Teléfono o Internet || Ley que Reglamenta el Uso de los Aparatos de Registro, Captura y Rastreo de Comunicaciones (Electrónicas) Entrantes y Salientes || Ley Pen/Trap
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: An agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.
       • In the plea agreement, the prosecutor agreed to recommend a sentencing reduction for acceptance of responsibility.
convenio declaratorio || acuerdo resolutorio
 
  
• It was an opportunity to view and inspect the contents of the suspect’s wallet and all his pocket trash.
artículos sueltos que trae uno en el bolsillo
 
  

1) Def.: An earlier offense that can be used to enhance a sentence imposed for a later conviction.
       •Many sentencing enhancements require the existence of a predicate offense.
2) Def.:  Under RICO, a predicate act is one of two or more related acts of racketeering necessary to establish a pattern.
       • Extortion and blackmail are examples of RICO predicate acts.

1) infracción previa || delito principal || acto ilícito fundamentado
2) uno de los actos ilícitos que fundamenta (un patrón de delincuencia organizada) || acto fundamental
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: a fact from which a presumption or inference arises.
       • 1) A fact from which an inference can be made.
hecho constituyente/constitutivo/presuntivo
LEGAL
 
  
• We need a probable cause hearing to determine issues on the OSC, order to show cause.
motivo fundado para proceder || motivos o causas justificadas/fundadas
LEGAL
 
  

Def.: In criminal law and procedure, substantive law declares what acts are crimes and imposes penalties, while procedural law sets the steps by which a violator is brought to punishment.
        • The different degrees of a crime are defined by substantive law. On the other hand, the right to a speedy trial is an example of a right that is protected by procedural law.

 

derecho procesal/adjetivo
LEGAL
 
  
• Proceeding by way of proffer is acceptable in a detention hearing because this type of hearing is neither a discovery device for the defense nor a trial on the merits.
 
Note: (See also: offer of proof)
información propuesta || propuesta/proposición de fundamentos || adelanto/preámbulo de lo que se va a presentar
LEGAL
 
  
In its presentation, the government proffered that the defendant had strong ties to Canada.
ofrecer/proponer información/fundamentos a modo de adelanto/preámbulo || podría comprobar los siguientes hechos/lo siguiente
LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: Courts often use this word to describe one part of a multifaceted–and often formalistic–legal test. The metaphor effectively shows that each part of the test must be met for a particular doctrine to apply: just as prongs are necessary to hold the stone in a piece of jewelry, so each element of a test (i.e., each “prong”) must be satisfied before the legal doctrine applies. (Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage, 3rd ed. 2011)
       • The defendant must meet all five prongs in order to qualify for a safety valve reduction?
componente || requisito || condición
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Having a usually specified number of parts or approaches. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pronged, accessed 09-26-2013)
       • The defense gave a two-pronged argument: the defendant had no knowledge, and he had no motive for committing the crime.
enfoque || flanco || frente ||
vía
 
  

1) • Did your parents provide for you when you were young; such as food, shelter and clothing?
2) • The defendant uses all of his income to provide for his family.

 

1) proporcionar lo necesario
2) mantener

 

 
  
• You had your rationale to do what you did.
razonamiento || razones || lógica || motivos en que se basa
 
  
• Your Honor, we cannot base our decision on raw data; it still needs to be analyzed.
datos en bruto || datos brutos || datos sin procesar
 
  
• This defendant had reservation no. 47 at the correctional center.
número de reservación/reserva
COURT SPEAK
 
  
Def.: A place or locality where a person is present, and of which he/she is an inhabitant.
       • Peter has more than one residence, but only one domicile.
 
Note: (See also: domicile and abode: usual place of ~)
lugar de residencia (de una persona)
 
  
• The server served the summons at the offender’s residence or usual place of abode.
 
Note: Phrase as found in documents in the context of service of process within the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
el lugar de residencia del individuo o su domicilio habitual
TRANSLATION
 
  
• The Government agreed to restage the crime scene for the defense.
recrear || reconstruir
 
  
Def.: Impression of the friction ridges found on the inner surface of a finger or a thumb. (http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint.html , accessed 3-30-2011)        
          • The expert based his opinion on Mr. Cascabel’s fingerprint ridge outlines.
cresta
EXPERT TESTMNY, FINGERPRINTS
 
  
• You are not eligible for safety valve to go below the minimum mandatory sentence because you have an extensive criminal history.
medida de seguridad/protección || cláusula de escape || válvula de seguridad/escape
LEGAL
 
  

Def.: Second Chance is a program that takes people off the streets and puts them to work. It is the official training center for STRIVE affiliates in the Western U.S.

       • The defendant was ordered to participate in the Second Chance program.

Note: Also see: STRIVE

Programa “Second Chance” (de otra oportunidad)
PROB/PRETRIAL
 
  
• Self-serving statements are a type of inadmissible hearsay.
declaración que se hace por interés/para beneficio propio || que favorece su posición.
 
  
1) • The opposing party was served with a summons at his usual place of abode.
2) • Have you ever served in a jury trial, Mr. Jones?
1) hacer entrega de || notificar (debidamente)
2) participar (en un jurado) || fungir (como miembro de un jurado) || ser miembro (de un jurado)
LEGAL
 
  
1) Def.: The person that calls the shots; the decision maker within an organization. Also used to refer to the leader of a gang.
       • The smugglers helped identify the shot caller within the organization.
el mandamás || el mero mero || el chipocludo || el jefe
GANGS, LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK, SLANG
 
  
• No, Your Honor, it was a slight on me, not on the way the brief had been written.
desaire || desprecio para o hacia (alguien)
 
  
• Accepting the loan from the known drug dealer led him down a slippery slope to a criminal conviction.
camino o terreno resbaladizo/pantanoso/escabroso/espinoso/peligroso || precedente peligroso || precipitación riesgosa || cuesta abajo
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• “Some cases are just not soluble,” said the judge.
soluble || solucionable
 
  
• The officer characterized the defendant's performance on pretrial supervision as spotty at best.
con altibajos || imperfecto || poco uniforme || irregular || dudoso
ALT/REHAB/DVRSN, PROB/PRETRIAL, SLANG
 
  
• Notwithstanding the defendant's plight, the Government stood by its recommendation of 30 months.
remitirse a|| atenerse a || mantener || mantenerse firme || reafirmarse en || reiterarse en

 
 
  
• The stateless boat was seized off the coast of San Diego.
barco apátrida/sin nacionalidad
MARITIME
 
  
• The sentencing enhancement is warranted due to the amount of stealth involved in his prior criminal conduct.
conducta sigilosa/furtiva/solapada
 
  
• I gave you a chance and you are back in three weeks. That’s like a stick in the eye.
• Last time I was lenient with you and all I got for placing my trust in you was a stick in eye.
afronta || burla || insulto
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: A person who makes a purchase on behalf of another person. A straw buyer is used when the real buyer cannot complete the transaction for some reason. (http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/straw-buyer.asp , 09-11-2013)
       • I've been reading in the news that they want to start cracking down on straw buyers who purchase guns and then supply them to criminals.
comprador ficticio || testaferro || prestanombre || persona interpósita/interpuesta
LEGAL
 
  

Def.: A program within Second Chance that helps guide people from off the streets, including ex-convicts, to permanent employment and self-sufficiency. Other participants may include at-risk youth, the homeless, recovering addicts, and former prisoners reentering the community.

       • The judge was hoping that participation in the STRIVE program would prove beneficial to the defendant.

Note: Also see: Second Chance

Programa STRIVE || Programa de capacitación laboral STRIVE
PROB/PRETRIAL
 
  
1) • The Government submits, Your Honor.
2) • We would submit that the defendant is not guilty, Your Honor.
3) • The Government submits exhibits #1 & #2.
1) dejar a su criterio || dejar a su debida consideración
2) proponer || plantear || postular
3) ofrecer || presentar
 
  
• They have to appear to testify based on a subpoena.
orden judicial de comparecencia || citatorio
LEGAL
 
  
1) Said of an individual or a legal entity.
        Witnesses were subpoenaed to court on the 3rd to give testimony for the defense.
2) Said of a document.
        Their tax records were also subpoenaed.
 
1) citar || ordenar (judicialmente) a comparecer
2) ordenar la presentación de un documento
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: In criminal law and procedure, substantive law declares what acts are crimes and imposes penalties, while procedural law sets the steps by which a violator is brought to punishment. •The different degrees of a crime are defined by substantive law. On the other hand, the right to a speedy trial is an example of a right that is protected by procedural law.
derecho sustantivo/material/de fondo
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A motion relating to substantive rather than procedural matters. Generally speaking, substantive motions come in two forms: as motions to suppress or to dismiss. • The district judge decides all substantive motions.
petición sustantiva || pedimento/moción de fondo
LEGAL
 
  
• The witness to the car accident was summoned to appear at the deposition.
emplazar || citar || requerir
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: An order by a court requiring someone to appear.
      • The defendant was unwilling to comply with a summons compelling him to produce his tax returns.
emplazamiento || citatorio || citación
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: A legal demand for a person to appear in court to serve as a juror in a grand jury investigation or trial. Failure to report may result in a fine or imprisonment.
       • Linda received a jury summons to appear on June 30th for jury duty.
citatorio para formar parte del jurado
LEGAL
 
  
• The judge granted the supplemental motion filed by defense counsel.
petición/pedimento/recurso adicional/ suplementaria/o
CRIM. PROCEDURE, LEGAL
 
  
• Laboratory results from a PharmCheck sweat patch came back positive for methamphetamine.
parche dérmico/cutáneo para detectar [el consumo de] sustancias || parche analizador del sudor || parche toxicológico
PROB/PRETRIAL
 
  
• Jurors should not be influenced by feelings of sympathy towards the defendant.
compasión
SENTENCING
 
  
• I am not sure counsel is giving me the entire tale of the tape; some facts seem to be missing.
no dar todos los pormenores || no ser la versión completa
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• He was convicted for using a telecommunications facility to broker a drug transaction.
sistema/medios de telecomunicaciones
 
  
• Your client’s claim that he was not aware of the 1,000 lbs. of marijuana next to him is not tenable.
(postura o posición) sustentable/sostenible/defendible
 
  
• “I don't think Mr. N. is thumbing his nose at the US laws, or anything like that,” said the attorney to the judge.
mofarse de || burlarse de || pintarle un violín || valerle... || mandarlo al diablo || importarle un bledo
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• In the eyes of the Court, the defendant thumbed his nose at his supervised release terms.
(no) importarle un bledo/comino/pepino (a alguien) || mostrar desdén
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
Def.: an electronic-optical surveying instrument       
 • The investigators reconstructed the crime scene when developing the case against the alleged rapist and gunman relying on information gathered through the use of a Total Station.
aparato/instrumento topográfico (de agrimensura) || equipo topográfico Estación Total  
LEGAL
 
  
• The U.S. Coast Guard cutter called for backup in order to have the seized vessel towed back to shore.
remolcar una embarcación
MARITIME
 
  
• “Your Honor, this is a fast-track case that fell off the tracks, but it’s now back on track,” explained the attorney when requesting that his case be continued.  
 
Note: (See also: fall off the tracks under tracks and fast-track case)
(volver a) encarrilarse        
       • Este caso es como un tren que se descarriló de la vía de resolución rápida y se volvió a encarrilar.
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• “Your Honor, this is a fast-track case that fell off the tracks, but it’s now back on track,” explained the attorney when requesting that his case be continued.  
 
Note: (See also: get back on track under track and fast-track case)
descarrilarse        
       • Este caso es como un tren que se descarriló de la vía de resolución rápida y se volvió a encarrilar.
 
  
• The FBI considers tracking communications through trap and trace devices essential in the monitoring of terrorism activity.
aparato de captura y rastreo de llamadas entrantes || aparato para el registro de llamadas entrantes
LEGAL
 
  
• The defense attorney asked the judge to put over the sentencing on the supervised release violation until after the underlying case was resolved.
que da lugar a || que da base a || razón/motivo/causa de || que fundamenta || fundamental || causal
 
  
• Sometimes it is hard to unring the bell once the jury has heard the inadmissible evidence.
dar marcha atrás || deshacer lo hecho || lo dicho, dicho está
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
1) • I can vouch for my friend’s generosity.
2) • The prosecutor was admonished not to vouch for the honesty of his informant.
1) dar fe || respaldar
2) avalar/reafirmar/apoyar/garantizar la veracidad de lo dicho
 
  
Def.: Tactic used by a law enforcement agency to protect or “wall off” an investigation and cover the federal presence from the target’s knowledge by having a different law enforcement agency  arrest the target without jeopardizing the larger investigation.    
       • The DEA, who knew of a car that was to deliver cocaine, asked local police to conduct a wall stop. The local police stopped the car due to a broken taillight. Therefore, the suspect believed that the seizure of the contraband from his/her vehicle was merely fortuitous.
táctica para proteger o aislar una investigación extensa haciendo que otra agencia detenga a alguno de los sujetos de la investigación por cargos no relacionados || parada por motivos no relacionados para encubrir la investigación principal || parada o detención táctica
LAW ENFORCEMENT SPEAK
 
  
• The fact that the defendant had been unemployed when he robbed the bank didn’t seem to matter a whit when the judge sentenced him to the maximum term allowed by law.  
no importar (ni) un comino || ser insignificante || valer un bledo/un verdadero cacahuate || no valer nada/ni una pizca/ni un ápice
IDIOM/PHRASE
 
  
• The whorl pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and two points of delta.  When the line of the fingerprint disc is placed on the two points of delta, it will bisect at least one of the ridges belonging to the core group. (http://www.santoshraut.com/forensic/fingerprinting.htm , accessed 3-30-2011)
• A plain whorl is a pattern in which there are two deltas and in which at least one ridge makes a turn through one complete circuit. (Proceso T. Tubid, Manual in Basic Fingerprinting, 2008)
espiral || verticilo
EXPERT TESTMNY, FINGERPRINTS
 
  
Def.: Deliberate avoidance of knowledge of a crime, esp. by failing to make a reasonable inquiry about suspected wrongdoing despite being aware that it is highly probable. (Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. 2009)
        • Despite the fact that the defendant had no direct knowledge of the drugs hidden in his car, the jury found him guilty due to his willful blindness.
 
Note: This concept is addressed by the Ninth Circuit in its jury instruction regarding deliberate ignorance.
desconocimiento voluntario/deliberado || cegarse de manera intencional a algo
LEGAL
 
  
Def.: Wire fraud is a fraudulent scheme to intentionally deprive another of property through wire communications or information technology.
       • She pled guilty to 2 counts of conspiracy to commit wire fraud and money laundering.
fraude por medios electrónicos || fraude mediante el uso de sistemas de telecomunicación
OFFENSES
 
  
• My client was living by his wits on the streets.
vivir de su ingenio/astucia
IDIOM/PHRASE